Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Servicium Debitum and Scutage in Twelfth Century England\ud With Comparisons to the Regno of Southern Italy

By CROSBY JAMES NICHOLAS SMITH

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to re-assess the system of military obligation in England at the earliest time sufficient documents survive to provide an in-depth explanation. It is both an examination of the twelfth-century feudal structure and lordship arrangements as described by these documents, and how they came to be in their twelfth-century forms. This is supplemented by a similar, but briefer, evaluation of the Regno of southern Italy and of the occasional relevant documents from Normandy. An examination of the place of military obligation in the kingdom of England covers three major areas: the assessment of this obligation, the cost of service both to the king and the individual knight, and how the men actually served. These three areas offer insight into how the Normans established the servicium debitum, how knights exempted themselves from their obligation or were compensated for extra service, and various aspects of what their service entailed, such as castle guard. \ud A study of the returns made by tenants-in-chief in 1166 suggests that these have been misinterpreted in the past; their inspiration lay in the desire of the barons to protect themselves from excessive royal demands, rather than in the crown’s desire to update the servicium debitum. The survey conducted in the Regno earlier is unlikely to have served as a prototype for the 1166 inquiry; it was different in purpose and in form. Scutages are examined, to show the complex patterns of payment, and to suggest that under Henry II a significant number of tenants-in-chief performed their service, rather than commuted it. The Pipe Rolls are used to analyse military expenditure at a local level in two counties, Kent and Shropshire; in particular pay rates are reconstructed. A series of appendices provide details of this expenditure, along with evidence of scutages

Topics: Military Obligation, Servicium debitum, scutage, Henry II, Medieval England
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:454
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1998). A Castle in the Sand: Mottes in the
  2. (1912). A History of Wales: From the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, 2 vols., Second Edition (London,
  3. (1971). Additional Work by E. Jamison on the Catalogus Baronum,’ Bullettino dell’Istituto italiano per il Medio Evo e Archivio Muratoriano,
  4. (2004). Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans, Prescott N. Dunbar (trans.) doi
  5. (1960). Amiratus – Àμηράς: L’Émirat et les doi
  6. (1911). and Sicily in doi
  7. (1963). Anglo-Norman Feudalism and the Problem of doi
  8. Annals and Memorials of St. doi
  9. (2002). Arabic Administration in Norman Sicily: The Royal Dîwân doi
  10. (1996). Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages (New Haven, doi
  11. (1983). Assessments and the Political Community under Henry II and His Sons (Berkeley, doi
  12. (1960). Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327 doi
  13. (1909). Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem and other Analogous Documents, doi
  14. (1937). Castle Guard Service at Dover Castle,’
  15. Catalogus Baronum neapolitano in regno versantium qui sub auspiciis Gulielmi cognomento Boni ad Terram Sanctam sibi vindicandam susceperunt,
  16. Catalogus Baronum neapolitano in regno versantium qui sub auspiciis Gulielmi cognomento Boni, expeditionem ad Terram Sanctam sibi vindicandam susceperunt,
  17. Catalogus Baronum regni neopolitani sub Gulielmo Il rege conditus pro expeditione ad Terram Sanctam
  18. (1972). Charters of the Honour of Mowbray, doi
  19. Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, doi
  20. Chronicles of the Reigns of doi
  21. Chronicon Casauriense,
  22. Chronicon sive Annales, 1153-69, in Hugo Falcandus, The History of the Tyrants of Sicily. doi
  23. (1995). Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193, Second Edition doi
  24. (1928). De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae Comitis et Roberti Guiscardi Ducis Fratris Eius,
  25. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, doi
  26. Eadmeri Historia Novorum in Anglia, et opuscula duo de Vita sancti Anselmi et quibusdam miraculis ejus,
  27. (1932). Ecclesiastical Tenants-in-Chief and Knight Service doi
  28. (1988). Elisabeth, ‘The Ship List of William the Conqueror,’ Anglo-Norman Studies,
  29. (1930). Family Origins doi
  30. (1938). Feudalism in Southern Italy with Special Reference to a New Edition of the
  31. (1961). Feudalism Revisited,’ The Economic History Review, doi
  32. Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benediciti Abbatis: The chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I, 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of doi
  33. (1866). Gesta Tancredi in expeditione Hierosolymitana, auctore Radulfo Cadomensi, ejus familiari,
  34. (2004). Giso (d. 1088),’ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn,
  35. (1986). Handbook of Medieval Exchange (London, doi
  36. (2004). Hemming (fl. c.1095)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn
  37. (2007). Henry II and England’s Insular
  38. (1989). Henry II’s Campaign Against the Welsh in 1165,’
  39. (1981). How ‘Norman’ was the Norman Conquest of Southern Italy? doi
  40. (1997). Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, doi
  41. (1925). Institutions doi
  42. (1978). Kanzlei König Rogers II. Von Sizilien, Carlrichard Brühl (ed.) doi
  43. (1981). King Henry II and the Earls: The Pipe Roll Evidence,’ doi
  44. (1959). Knight Service in Ireland,’ doi
  45. La Historia o Liber de Regno Sicilie,
  46. (1947). La Tactique
  47. (1980). Le Assise di Ruggero II. Problemi di storia delle fontie e di diritto penale (Naples,
  48. (1940). Le R←gime F←odal de l’Italie Normande
  49. (1946). Les mercenaires au Xlle si│cle: Henri II Plantegenet et les origines de l’arm←e m←tier,’ Biblioth│que de l’École des chartes, doi
  50. (1969). Les Premi│res Insitutions du Duch← de Normandie’, I Normanni e la loro espansione in Europa nell’alto medioevo, Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, 16. doi
  51. (2006). Lives and Miracles of Saints Oda, doi
  52. (1898). Livre des Deux Jardins,
  53. (1998). Medieval Texts doi
  54. (1962). Military Institutions on the Eve of the Norman Conquest doi
  55. (1994). Military Institutions on the Welsh Marches: Shropshire, doi
  56. (1996). New Light on Master Alexander Swerford (d. 1246): The Career and Connections of an
  57. (1992). Norman Kingdom of Sicily doi
  58. (1961). Notes on Norman Sicilian Surveys,’
  59. (2004). Origins of the Crossbow Industry in England,’ doi
  60. (1989). Quei maledetti normanni’. Cavalieri e organizzazione militare nel Mezzogiorno normanno
  61. Radulfi Nigri Chronica, Robert Anstruther
  62. (2004). Ralph (b. c.1140, d. in or before 1199?)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn,
  63. (1894). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, doi
  64. (2002). Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler Between East doi
  65. Roll): Magnum rotulum scaccarii, vel rotulum pipae, anno tricesimoprimo regni Henrici
  66. Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum in Turri Londinensi Asservatus,
  67. (1963). Saint Anselm and His Biographer doi
  68. (1992). Second Edition doi
  69. (1929). Select Charters and other Illustrations of English Constitutional History, doi
  70. (1997). Territorial Lordships in the Principality of Salerno,
  71. (1993). The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily doi
  72. (2000). The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest doi
  73. (1997). The Aristocracy of Norman England doi
  74. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages, doi
  75. (1995). The Chronicle of John of Worcester, doi
  76. (1880). The Constitutional History of England: Its Origin and Development, doi
  77. (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1162-1170, doi
  78. (2005). The Deeds of Count Roger of Calabria and Sicily and of his Brother Duke Robert Guiscard, Kenneth Baxter Wolf (trans.) (Ann Arbor, doi
  79. (1944). The Domesday Monachorum of Christ Church Canterbury, doi
  80. (1912). The Exchequer in the Twelfth Century, The Ford Lectures doi
  81. (1961). The First Century of English Feudalism: 1066-1166, Second Edition doi
  82. (2005). The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen: A History of the Normans on the First Crusade, doi
  83. (1998). The History of the Tyrants of Sicily, Graham Loud and Thomas Wiedemann (eds. and trans.) doi
  84. (1911). The Honour of Mortain in the Norman Infeudationes Militum of 1172’ doi
  85. (1999). The Household Knights of King John doi
  86. (1982). The Introduction of Knight Service into England,’ Anglo Norman Studies,
  87. (2003). The Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of England, doi
  88. (1970). The Knight and the Knight’s Fee in doi
  89. (2007). The Latin Church in Norman Italy doi
  90. (1971). The Liber Augustalis or Constitutions of Melfi Promulgated by the Emperor Frederick II for the Kingdom of Sicily in 1231, James M. Powell (trans.) doi
  91. (1965). The Military Organization of Norman doi
  92. (1913). The Norman Administration of Apulia and Capua, More Especially Under Roger II and William doi
  93. (2001). The Normans and their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of doi
  94. (1976). The Normans and their Myth doi
  95. (1991). The Occasion of the Coming of the Normans to Southern Italy,’ doi
  96. The Red Book of the Exchequer: A Reply to doi
  97. (2007). The Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of doi
  98. (1997). The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval doi
  99. (1960). The Significance of Scutage Rates in Eleventh- doi
  100. (1948). The Survival of the Five Hide Unit in the doi
  101. The Treaty of Benevento, 1156,’ in Hugo Falcandus, The History of the Tyrants of Sicily. doi
  102. (2007). The Use of Naval Power
  103. (1961). The Victoria history of the county of York, The City of doi
  104. (2009). The Victualling of doi
  105. (1975). Three Early Castle Sites in Sicily: Motta Camastra,
  106. (1963). Two Comments on the Problem of Continuity in doi
  107. (1955). Tywysogyon, Thomas Jones (trans.)
  108. Vita Sancti Thomae, Materials for the History of Thomas doi
  109. (1984). War in the Middle Ages, doi
  110. (1983). Warfare and Military Obligation in Norman Italy doi
  111. (2000). When was Southern Italy ‘Feudal’?’ Il Feudalesimo Nell’Alto Medioevo

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.