Article thumbnail

Pediatric Stroke: Clinical Findings and Radiological Approach

By Giuseppe Lanni, Alessia Catalucci, Laura Conti, Alessandra Di Sibio, Amalia Paonessa and Massimo Gallucci


This paper focuses on radiological approach in pediatric stroke including both ischemic stroke (Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis) and hemorrhagic stroke. Etiopathology and main clinical findings are examined as well. Magnetic Resonance Imaging could be considered as the first-choice diagnostic exam, offering a complete diagnostic set of information both in the discrimination between ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and in the identification of underlying causes. In addition, Magnetic Resonance vascular techniques supply further information about cerebral arterial and venous circulation. Computed Tomography, for its limits and radiation exposure, should be used only when Magnetic Resonance is not available and on unstable patients

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (2005). A proposed classification for subtypes of arterial ischaemic stroke
  2. (2007). Age-relatedvariationinpresentingsignsofchildhoodarterial ischemic stroke,”
  3. (2004). Arterial ischaemic stroke in children,”
  4. (2004). Arterial ischaemic stroke in children: review of the literature and strategiesforfuturestrokestudies,”ThrombosisandHaemostasis,
  5. (2003). Arterial ischemic stroke in neonates, infants, and children: an overview of underlying conditions, imaging methods, and treatment modalities,”
  6. (1992). B a r r o n ,D .A .G u s n a r d ,R .A .Z i m m e r m a n ,a n dR
  7. (2007). Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: clinical aspects, imaging features and endovascular treatment,”
  8. (2000). Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children,”
  9. (2010). Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous) thrombosis in children,”
  10. (2005). Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in children: risk factors, presentation, diagnosis and outcome,”
  11. (2002). Cerebral venous thrombosis, intraventricular haemorrhage and white matter lesions in a preterm newborn with factor V (Leiden) mutation,”
  12. (2006). Cerebrovascular disease and varicella
  13. (1985). Cerebrovascular disease in children under 16 years of age in the city of Dijon, France: a study of incidence and clinical features from
  14. (1978). Cerebrovascular disease in infants and children: a study of incidence, clinical features, and survival,”
  15. (2006). Computed tomography of pediatric stroke,”
  16. (1999). Conventional cerebral angiography in children with ischemic stroke,”
  17. (2008). Craniocervical arterial dissection: spectrum of imaging findings and differential diagnosis,”
  18. (2001). D e l s i n g ,C .E .C a t s m a n - B e r r e v o e t s ,a n dI .M .A p p e l , “Early prognostic indicators of outcome in ischemic childhood stroke,”
  19. (2001). Deaths: final data for
  20. (2010). Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke,”
  21. (2002). Diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis with echoplanar T2∗-weighted magnetic resonance imaging,”
  22. (2006). ebire, “Transient cerebral arteriopathy in childhood,”
  23. (2005). Genetics of cerebrovascular disorders,”
  24. (2003). Guidelines and recommendations for perfusion imaging in cerebral ischemia: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals by the writing group on perfusion imaging, from the Council on
  25. (1998). H a n n ,a n dF .J .K i r k h a m ,“ I n h e r i t e dp r o t h r o m b o t i cs t a t e s and ischaemic stroke in childhood,”
  26. (2006). Inheritance pattern of familial moyamoya disease: autosomal dominant mode and genomic imprinting,”
  27. (2008). Intravenous thrombolysis followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for the treatment of pediatric ischemic stroke,”
  28. (2006). Is there a role for magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of non-traumatic intraparenchymal haemorrhage in children?” Pediatric Radiology,
  29. (1993). Kappelle et al., “Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke: definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial.
  30. (2003). Kirkham,“Investigationofriskfactorsinchildrenwitharterial ischemic stroke,”
  31. (2002). Magnetic resonance angiography in childhood arterial brain infarcts: a comparative study with contrast angiography,”
  32. (2009). Male predominance in childhood ischemic stroke: findings from the international pediatric stroke study,”
  33. (2002). Moyamoya disease: a review,”
  34. (2000). Neurologic outcome in survivors of childhood arterial ischemic stroke and sinovenous thrombosis,”
  35. (2010). New mechanical recanalization devices—the future in pediatric stroke treatment,”
  36. (2004). Newborn brain infarction: clinical aspects and magnetic resonance imaging,”
  37. (2004). Paediatric Stroke Working Group, “Stroke in childhood: clinical guidelines for diagnosis, management and rehabilitation,” Royal College of Physicians,
  38. (2004). Pathophysiology of stroke in sickle cell disease,”
  39. (2008). Pediatric and newborn stroke,”
  40. (2004). Pediatric stroke among Hong Kong Chinese subjects,”
  41. (2004). Pediatric stroke belt: geographic variation in stroke mortality
  42. Pediatric stroke: past, present and future,”
  43. (2005). Pediatric stroke: what do we know and what do we need to know?”
  44. (2000). Prognosis of ischemic stroke in childhood: a long-term follow-up study,”
  45. (1998). Prothrombotic disorders in infants and children with cerebral thromboembolism,”
  46. (1993). r o d e r i c k ,G .T .T a l b o t ,E .P r e n g e r ,A .L e a c h ,a n dT .B r o t t , “Stroke in children within a major metropolitan area: the surprising importance of intracerebral hemorrhage,”
  47. (2010). Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children,”
  48. (2004). Risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in childhood,”
  49. (2007). Risk of recurrent childhood arterial ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort: the importance of cerebrovascular imaging,”
  50. (2003). Risk of stroke in children: ethnic and gender disparities,”
  51. (2001). Sickle cell and the brain,” Hematology.
  52. (2000). Stroke in childhood: outcome and recurrence risk by mechanism in 59 patients,”
  53. (1998). Stroke in children and sickle-cell disease: Baltimore-Washington cooperative young stroke study,”
  54. (2002). Stroke in children,”
  55. (2000). Stroke in children: the coexistence of multiple risk factors predicts poor outcome,” Neurology,v o l .5 4 ,n o .2 ,p p .
  56. (2002). Surgical approaches to vascular anomalies of the child’s brain,”
  57. (2009). The course and outcome of unilateral intracranial arteriopathy in 79 children with ischaemic stroke,”
  58. (2005). The first three years of the Swiss neuropaediatric stroke registry (SNPSR): a population-based study of incidence, symptoms and risk factors,”
  59. (2009). Thrombolysis in acute childhood stroke: design and challenges of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke clinical trial,”
  60. (2002). Time lag to diagnosis of stroke in children,”
  61. (2009). Touz´ e et al., “High-resolution mr imaging of the cervical arterial wall: what the radiologist needs to know,”
  62. (2004). Toward thedefinition ofcerebral arteriopathies ofchildhood,”
  63. (2005). Treatment and prevention of cerebrovascular disorders in children,”
  64. (1999). Varicella as a risk factor for cerebral infarction in childhood: a case-control study,”
  65. (2002). von Eckardstein et al., “Prospective assessment of risk factors for recurrent stroke during childhood—a 5-year follow-up study,”
  66. (2005). Z a h u r a n e c ,D .L .B r o w n ,L .D .L i s a b e t h ,a n dL .B . Morgenstern, “Is it time for a large, collaborative study of pediatric stroke?”