Location of Repository

The Antiinfective Effects of Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) on Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Mice

By Ting-Yeu Dai, Chih-Hua Wang, Kun-Nan Chen, I-Nung Huang, Wei-Sheng Hong, Sheng-Yao Wang, Yen-Po Chen, Ching-Yun Kuo and Ming-Ju Chen


We assayed the effects of velvet antler (VA) of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) and its extracts on the anti-infective activity against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in vivo in this study. In vitro data indicated that the VA extracts stimulated the proliferation of resting splenocytes and macrophages in a dose-dependent manner up to the highest concentration used (150 μg mL−1). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12) by lipoteichoic acid was significantly suppressed after being cocultured with the VA extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Animal test in S. aureus-infected mice demonstrated that the numbers of bacteria determined in the kidneys and peritoneal lavage fluid of S. aureus-infected mice were significantly higher than those found in the same organs of mice pretreated with the VA samples. Moreover, the highly enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages was further verified after in vitro treatment with the VA samples. The protective mechanisms of the VA samples might include an immune enhancer and an inflammatory cytokine suppressor

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3092581
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles



    1. (2008). A critical function for transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T17 responses,”
    2. (1974). A guide for the preparation and storage of uncalcified male antlers as a medicinal raw material,” in Reindeer Antlers,
    3. (2004). a n ,a n dG .J .J h o n , “Modification of concanavalin A-dependent proliferation by phosphatidylcholines isolated from deer antler,
    4. (2008). A randomized clinical trial of elk velvet antler in rheumatoid arthritis,”BiologicalResearchforNursing,vol.9,no.3,pp.254– 261,
    5. (1997). Berman,S.M.Factor ,andF .D .Lowy ,“Correlation of histopathologic and bacteriologic changes with cytokine expression in an experimental murine model of bacteremic Staphylococcus aureus infection,”
    6. (2007). Chloroform extract of deer antler inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption,”
    7. (1996). clinical application of pilose antler,”
    8. (2009). Differentiation and functional analysis of human T17 cells,”
    9. (1991). Effect of fatty acids on the proliferation of concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymph node lymphocytes,”
    10. (1999). Effect of intestinal epithelial cell cytokines on mucosal B-cell IgA secretion: enhancing effect of epithelial-derived IL-6 but not TGF-β on
    11. (2009). Effects of kefir supernatant and lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefirEvidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9 grain on cytokine production by macrophage,”
    12. (2008). Effects of TGFβ1a n d extracts from Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe on acute and chronic arthritis in rats,”
    13. (2006). Effects of the oral administration of the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens on the gut mucosal immunity,”
    14. (1991). Expression of granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor in rheumatoid arthritis: regulation by tumor necrosis factor-α,”
    15. (2009). Genaro, “IFN-γ plays a detrimental role in murine defense againstnasalcolonizationofStaphylococcusaureus,”
    16. (1999). h o n ,S .Y .P a rk ,S .Y .H a n ,S .L ee ,Y .K i m ,a n dY .S .C h a n g, “Studies of the chemical structure of gangliosides in deer antler,
    17. (1986). Heavy metals in antlers of roe deer from two Swedish forests,
    18. (2003). Human intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cells are potent producers of IL6,”
    19. (2009). Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) and its simulated gastrointestinal digests on immune cells in vitro,”
    20. (2006). Immunosuppressive activity of deer antler extracts of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis,”
    21. (2000). Influence of interferon-γ administration on the severity of experimental group
    22. (1999). Inhibitory effects of velvet antler water extract on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and DA receptor supersensitivity in mice,”
    23. (1999). J.S.Suh,J.S.Eun,J.N.So,J.T.Seo,andG.J.Jhon,“Phagocytic activity of ethyl alcohol fraction of deer antler in murine peritoneal macrophage,”
    24. (1986). K o ,T .T .Y i p ,a n dS .W .T s a o ,“ E p i d e r m a lg r o w t hf a c t o r from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler,”
    25. (2004). Mannose-binding lectin-deficient mice are susceptible to infection with Staphylococcus aureus,”
    26. (1999). Monoacetyldiglycerides as new Ca 2+ mobilizing agents in rat pancreatic acinar cells,”
    27. (2004). orres, “Interleukin-17: a mediator of inflammatory responses,”
    28. (2000). Phosphatidylcholine participates in the interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes,”
    29. (2007). Prevention of collageninduced arthritis in mice by
    30. (2001). RNAIII inhibiting peptide (RIP), a global inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis: structure and function analysis,” Peptides,
    31. (2000). Role of macrophages in Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis and sepsis,”
    32. (2009). Supercritical fluid extraction of monoamine oxidase inhibitor from antler velvet,”
    33. (2007). Surface phenotype and antigenic specificity of human interleukin 17-producing T helper memory cells,”
    34. (2007). T.J.Kindt,R.A.Goldsby,andB.A.Osborne,“Cellsandorgans of immune system,” in Kuby Immunology
    35. (2009). Th1–Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice,”
    36. (2008). Th17 cells in airway diseases,”
    37. (2008). The differentiation of human T-17 cells requires transforming growth factor-β andinductionofthenuclearreceptorRORγt,”Nature Immunology,
    38. (2006). The immunomodulator ginsan induces resistance to experimental sepsis by inhibiting Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory signals,”
    39. (2002). The immunopathogenesis of sepsis,”
    40. (2008). The isolation and characterization of murine macrophages,”
    41. (2009). The reproductive performance of female Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) in semi-domesticated herds,”
    42. (1992). u n ,a n dB .X .W a n g , “Study on the anti-aging action of phosphate of pilose antler,”
    43. (1983). Ultrastructural changes associated with the mineralization of deer antler cartilage,”
    44. (1999). Velvet antler: a literature review,”
    45. (1999). Velvet Antler: Its Historical Medical Use, Performance Enhancing Effects and Pharmacology,E l kT e c hI n t e r n a -tional Research Centre,

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.