Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The well known pathogen-associated molecular patterns include LPS from Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, the crystal structures of two complexes of the short form of camel PGRP (CPGRP-S) with LPS and LTA determined at 1.7- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively, are reported. Both compounds were held firmly inside the complex formed with four CPGRP-S molecules designated A, B, C, and D. The binding cleft is located at the interface of molecules C and D, which is extendable to the interface of molecules A and C. The interface of molecules A and B is tightly packed, whereas that of molecules B and D forms a wide channel. The hydrophilic moieties of these compounds occupy a common region, whereas hydrophobic chains interact with distinct regions in the binding site. The binding studies showed that CPGRP-S binds to LPS and LTA with affinities of 1.6 × 10−9 and 2.4 × 10−8 m, respectively. The flow cytometric studies showed that both LPS- and LTA-induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was inhibited by CPGRP-S. The results of animal studies using mouse models indicated that both LPS- and LTA-induced mortality rates decreased drastically when CPGRP-S was administered. The recognition of both LPS and LTA, their high binding affinities for CPGRP-S, the significant decrease in the production of LPS- and LTA-induced TNF-α and IL-6, and the drastic reduction in the mortality rates in mice by CPGRP-S indicate its useful properties as an antibiotic agent
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