Synchronous malignancies with an esophageal malignancy are not uncommon. However synchronous esophageal and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare with only 11 cases reported in the world literature, the esophageal malignancies being adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas. Here, we report the first case of synchronous small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus with a RCC. SCC of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis constituting 0.8–2.4% of all esophageal malignancies, currently treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Our patient underwent chemoradiotherapy for the SCC of the esophagus followed by radical nephrectomy for the RCC. He developed metastatic disease and died 8 months after diagnosis. Larger case series are required to develop a treatment algorithm for such a rare presentation. The key points of this report are: (1) Synchronous RCC with a primary esophageal carcinoma is a rare presentation. (2) This is the first described case report of a SCC of the esophagus with a synchronous RCC. (3) Overall prognosis in a synchronous presentation is determined by the primary esophageal malignancy. (4) Esophageal carcinomas with synchronous malignancies have a poorer prognosis compared to isolated esophageal carcinoma
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