Article thumbnail

Skeletons in confusion: a review of astrophorid sponges with (dicho–)calthrops as structural megascleres (Porifera, Demospongiae, Astrophorida)

By Rob W.M. Van Soest, Elly J. Beglinger and Nicole J. De Voogd

Abstract

We present a review of astrophorid species possessing calthrops megascleres as structural megascleres (including species with dichotriaene modifications, but excluding mesotriaene and trichotriaene bearing species). Radiating oxeas characteristic of most astrophorids are lacking in such sponges, but auxiliary oxeas are apparently present in some species. These sponges are currently assigned to two families, Pachastrellidae with four nominal genera Dercitus, Stoeba, Dercitancorina, Halinastra (the latter two generally considered junior synonyms of Stoeba), and Calthropellidae with nominal genera Calthropella, Corticellopsis (usually considered a junior synonym), Pachataxa and Pachastrissa. Our review of many original specimens and extensive new material demonstrates the existence of considerable morphological similarity in megasclere shape and arrangement, and possible overlap of some microscleres of these sponges: pseudasters in Dercitus resembling euasters in Calthropella, ataxasters and other modified types in Calthropellidae resembling rhabds in a species of Dercitus. Pachastrellid representatives are proposed to be united in a single genus Dercitus, recognizable as (dicho–)calthrops bearing sponges with sanidaster–like microrhabds. Three subgenera, Dercitus s.s., Stoeba and the revived Halinastra are distinguished to accommodate species groups sharing additional characters. Dercitancorina is merged with Dercitus (Stoeba), because the type species, Dercitus lesinensis was found to be barely distinct from Dercitus (Stoeba) plicatus. Similarly, the calthropellid representatives are proposed to be united in a single genus Calthropella recognizable as calthrops bearing sponges with oxyasters. Three subgenera, Calthropella s.s., Pachataxa and Corticellopsis are distinguished to accommodate species groups sharing additional characters. The calthropellid genus Pachastrissa is considered a junior synonym of Calthropella s.s. because its type species, Pachastrella geodioides, is barely distinct from the type species of Calthropella, Calthropella simplex. Two species previously assigned to Dercitus or Stoeba (Dercitus loricatus and Stoeba natalensis) are excluded from the genus Dercitus as they do not fit with the emended and improved definition of the genus. One species assigned to Calthropella, Calthropella digitata, is excluded from that genus and assigned to the ancorinid genus Stelletta. Based on the similarity of the megascleres and their structure-less arrangement, we predict that the two reviewed genera will be found to be closely related and eventually will need to be accomodated in a single family, but independent molecular evidence is awaited before changes in the family classification, including a verdict on the validity of the family Calthropellidae, will be proposed. Our review included 38 valid species among which fourteen species and one subspecies appear to be new to science. Four of these were represented by insufficient material for a proper description, but the remaining ten are described as new species: Dercitus (Stoeba) senegalensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba) verdensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba) fijiensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba) bahamensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra) berau sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra) japonensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra) arubensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra) sibogae sp. n., Calthropella (Calthropella) xavierae sp. n., and Calthropella (Pachataxa) pyrifera sp. n. The new subspecies, Dercitus (Dercitus) bucklandi lusitanicus ssp. n. is described for southern East Atlantic populations of the nominal species. Several specimens assigned to existing species were found to be deviating to the extent that they are likely members of further undescribed species. These are briefly discussed to facilitate further studies of the diversity of the two genera. Species of both genera and the six subgenera, including deviating or insufficiently characterized specimens belonging to species not yet properly described, are keyed out. Distribution patterns are discussed

Topics: Article
Publisher: Pensoft Publishers
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3088436
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1858) On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadae. Part I. On the Spicula.
  2. (1862) Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres.
  3. (1864) Supplement der Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. Enthaltend die Histologie und systematische Ergänzungen.
  4. (1866) A Monograph of the British Spongiadae.
  5. (1866) Zweites Supplement der Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres.
  6. (1867) Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges, with the Descriptions of some New Genera.
  7. (1868) Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig,
  8. (1870) Grundzüge einer Spongien-Fauna des atlantischen Gebietes.
  9. (1871) A Descriptive Account of three Pachytragous Sponges growing on the Rocks of the South Coast of Devon.
  10. (1872) Mikrogeologische Studien über das kleinste Leben der Meeres- Tiefgrunde aller Zonen und dessen geologischen Einfl uss. Abhandlungen der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften
  11. (1874) A Monograph of the British Spongiadae.Volume 3. Ray Society. London, xvii + 367 pp.Skeletons in confusion: a review of astrophorid sponges with (dicho–)calthrops as structural...
  12. (1875) Notes Introductory to the Study and Classifi cation of the Spongida. Part II.
  13. (1876) Descriptions and Figures of Deep-Sea Sponges and their Spicules, from the Atlantic Ocean, dredged up on board H.M.S.‘Porcupine’, chiefl y
  14. (1880) Report on Specimens dredged up from the Gulf of Manaar and presented to the Liverpool Free Museum by Capt.W.H. Cawne Warren. Annals and
  15. (1880) Reports on the dredging under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz,
  16. (1886) Preliminary account of the Tetractinellid sponges dredged by H.M.S.
  17. (1888) Report on the Tetractinellida collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873–1876.
  18. (1891) Die Spongienfauna des Rothen Meeres (II.
  19. (1892) Contribution à l’étude des Spongiaires de l’Atlantique Nord (Golfe de Gascogne, Terre-Neuve, Açores). Résultats des campagnes scientifi ques accomplies par le Prince Albert I Monaco 2: 1–165, pls I–XI.
  20. (1894) Die Tetractinelliden der Adria. (Mit einem Anhange über die Lithistiden). Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien,
  21. (1895) Étude monographique des Spongiaires de
  22. (1897) Spongiaires de la Baie d’Amboine.
  23. (1909). (Eds) Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Ergebnisse der Hamburger südwest-australischen Forschungsreise
  24. (1988). A
  25. (1930). A (2005) 1,1-Dimethyl-5,6-dihydroxyindolinium chloride from a deep-water marine sponge,/Dercitus/ sp.
  26. (1993). A collection of marine sponges from East Africa.
  27. (1961). A collection of Porifera from Northern New Zealand, with Descriptions of Seventeen New Species.
  28. (1986). A collection of West Indian Demospongiae (Porifera). In appendix, a list of the Demospongiae hitherto recorded from the West Indies. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale
  29. (2007). A new species of Stoeba (Demospongiae: Astrophorida) from oceanic islands off north-eastern
  30. (1975). A survey of the sponges from thr northwestern Gulf of Mexico. PhD thesis,
  31. (1993). Affi nities of the Marine Demospongiae Fauna of the Cape Verde Islands and Tropical West Africa. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 159:
  32. (1989). Antitumor activity and nucleic acid binding properties of Dercitin, a new acridine alkaloid isolated from a marine Dercitus species sponge.
  33. (2000). Boring sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Indian Ocean.
  34. (1972). Boring sponges of the reefs of Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay.
  35. (1989). Cavity dwelling sponges in a southern Caribbean coral reef and their paleontological implications.
  36. (1982). Contribución al conocimiento de los espongiarios de las islas Canarias.
  37. (1938). Contribution nouvelle à la connaissance des Eponges des côtes d’Algérie.
  38. (1994). Demosponge distribution patterns. In: Van Soest RWM,
  39. (2007). Demosponge fauna of Ormonde and Gettysburg Seamounts (Gorringe Bank, north-east Atlantic): diversity and zoogeographical affi nities.
  40. (1992). Demosponges of the red coral bottoms from the Alboran Sea.
  41. (1969). Demospongiae from the Fiji islands. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening
  42. (1988). Dercitine, a new biologically active acridine alkaloid from a deep water marine sponge, Dercitus sp.
  43. (1926). Description of South African sponges collected in the South African Marine Survey. Part I. Myxospongia and Astrotetraxonida.
  44. (1929). Die tetraxonen Schwämme Westindiens. In: Kükenthal W, Hartmeyer, R (Eds) Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Forschungsreise nach Westindien. Zoologische Jahr-Rob W.M. Van Soestet al.
  45. (1907). Die Tetraxonia der
  46. (2000). Diversity of sponge fauna in mangrove ponds,
  47. (1969). Éponges de la Roche du Large et de l’étage bathyal de Méditerranée (Ré-coltes de la soucoupe plongeante Cousteau et dragages). Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle
  48. (1971). Éponges des récifs coralliens de Tuléar (Madagascar).
  49. (1958). Éponges récoltées dans l’Atlantique oriental par le ‘Président Th éodore-Tissier’
  50. (1983). Eponges Tétractinellides et Lithistides bathyales de Nouvelle- Calédonie.
  51. (1918). Esponjas del litoral de Asturias. Trabajos del
  52. (2002). Esponjas marinas de Canarias. Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias,
  53. (1986). Estudio preliminar de la fauna asociada a los fondos coraliferos del mar de Alboran
  54. (2002). Family Calthropellidae Lendenfeld,
  55. (2002). Family Pachastrellidae. In: Hooper JNA, Van Soest RWM (Eds) Systema Porifera. A guide to the classifi cation of sponges.
  56. (1978). Fauna Marina de Galicia. Contribución al conocimiento de los poríferos del liotoral gallego. Monografi as Universidade de Santiago de
  57. (1914). Japanische Tetraxonida, I. Sigmatophora und II. Astrophora metastrosa.
  58. (1900). Kieselschwämme von Ternate.
  59. (1902). Les Asterostreptidae.
  60. (1985). Les Démosponges littorales de l’Archipel des Açores. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique (n.s.)
  61. (1972). Les spongiaires des grottes sous-marines de la région de Marseille: Ecologie et systématique.
  62. (1987). Littoral demosponges from the Banks of the Strait of Sicily and the Alboran Sea. In: Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N (Eds) Taxonomy of Porifera from the N.E. Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea.
  63. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas.
  64. (1980). Metabolites of the marine sponge Dercitus species.
  65. (2010). Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of the Geodiidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Astrophorida) – combining phylogenetic and Linnaean classifi cation.
  66. (1922). Monactinellida und Tetractinellida des Adriatischen Meeres. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik,
  67. (1970). On some deep sea sponges from the Gulf of Mannar, with descriptions of three new species.
  68. (2010). Phylogeny, taxonomy and evolution of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae). Th esis
  69. (1955). Porifera. In: Moore RC (Ed) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part E, Archaeocyatha and Porifera. Geological Society of America and
  70. (1972). Report on a collection of sponges from the Bay of Naples.
  71. (1932). Report on the shallow-water marine sponges in the collection of the Indian Museum. Part I.
  72. (1905). Report on the sponges collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Herdman WA (Ed) Report to the Government
  73. (1981). Révision de la collection d’éponges d’Amboine (Moluques, Indonésie) constitué par Bedot et Pictet et conservée au Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Genève. Revue suisse de
  74. (1984). Sanjuan A
  75. (1997). Shallow water Demosponges of the Galápagos Islands. Revue suisse de
  76. (2004). Shinsonefuran, a cytotoxic furanosesterterpene with a novel carbon skeleton, from the deep-sea sponge Stoeba extensa.
  77. (1915). Some Sponges parasitic on Clionidae with further notes on that family.
  78. (1959). Specie nuove di Demospongie provenienti da acque superfi ciali del golfo di Napoli.
  79. (1992). Sponges of the British Isles (‘Sponges V’). A Colour Guide and Working Document.
  80. (1952). Spongiaires de la côte du Sénégal. Bulletin de l’Institut français d’Afrique noire
  81. (1904). Spongiaires des Açores. Résultats des campagnes scientifi ques accomplies par le Prince Albert I Monaco 25: 1–280,
  82. (1923). Spongiaires du Musée Zoologique de Strasbourg. Choristides. Bulletin de l’Institut océanographique Monaco 435:
  83. (2002). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classifi cation of Sponges.
  84. (1932). Th e marine and fresh-water sponges of California.
  85. (1968). Th e Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae, Part 1. (Tetractinomorpha and Lithistida).
  86. (2010). Th e most common sponges on the Great Barrier Reef seabed, Australia, include species new to science (Phylum Porifera). Zootaxa 2616:
  87. (2007). Th e sponges of California. A guide and Key to the marine sponges of California. Monterey Bay Sanctuary Foundation,
  88. (1956). Th e sponges of West Africa. Atlantide Report (Scientifi c Results of the Danish Expedition to the Coasts of Tropical West Africa, 1945–1946,
  89. (1997). Th esaurus of Sponge Morphology. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 596:
  90. (2004). Vafi dis D
  91. (2008). World Porifera database.
  92. (2006). Yucatania clavus, new genus and species of the family Th rombidae (Porifera: Demospongiae: Astrophorida) from the continental shelf off Yucatan,