Article thumbnail

The Role of Molecular Imaging in the Diagnosis and Management of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

By Lie-Hang Shen, Yu-Chin Tseng, Mei-Hsiu Liao and Ying-Kai Fu


Neuropsychiatric disorders are becoming a major socioeconomic burden to modern society. In recent years, a dramatic expansion of tools has facilitated the study of the molecular basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging has enabled the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular, tissue, and organism levels in intact living subjects. This technology has revolutionized the practice of medicine and has become critical to quality health care. New advances in research on molecular imaging hold promise for personalized medicine in neuropsychiatric disorders, with adjusted therapeutic doses, predictable responses, reduced adverse drug reactions, early diagnosis, and personal health planning. In this paper, we discuss the development of radiotracers for imaging dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems and β-amyloid plaques. We will underline the role of molecular imaging technologies in various neuropsychiatric disorders, describe their unique strengths and limitations, and suggest future directions in the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (1993). [11C](+)McN5652 as a radiotracer for imaging serotonin uptake sites with
  2. (1993). A .J .H u g h e s ,S .E .D a n i e l ,S .B l a n k s o n ,a n dA
  3. (2002). A lipophilic thioflavin-T derivative for positron emission tomography (PET) imagingof amyloid in brain,”
  4. (2010). A phase I study of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease,”
  5. (2010). A.L.BerryandT.Foltynie,“Genetherapy:aviabletherapeutic strategy for Parkinson’s disease?”
  6. (2002). Agdeppa et al., “Localization of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of living patients with alzheimer disease,”
  7. (2010). Alzheimer’s disease: SPECT and PET tracers for beta-amyloid imaging,”
  8. (2008). Amyloid imaging in Alzheimer’s disease,”
  9. (2008). Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects,”
  10. (2003). Assessment of neuroimaging techniques as biomarkers of the progression
  11. (2008). b e r ling,W .J .J ag u st ,C .W .C hrist inee tal. ,“ R e su lt sf r om a phase I safety trial of hAADC gene therapy for Parkinson disease,”
  12. (1991). B.Rozdilsky,andA.Rajput, “Accuracy ofclinical diagnosis in Parkinsonism—a prospective study,” Canadian J o u r n a lo fN e u r o l o g i c a lS c i e n c e s ,
  13. (2006). Brain receptor imaging,”
  14. Brain serotonin transporter binding potential measured with [11C]DASB positron emission tomography: effects of major depressive episodes and severity of dysfunctional attitudes,”
  15. (2006). Brain SPECT imaging and whole-body biodistribution with [123I]ADAM—a serotonin transporter radiotracer in healthy human subjects,”
  16. (2010). C.Sioka,A.F ot opoulos,andA.P .K yritsis,“R ec entad vanc esin PET imaging for evaluation of Parkinson’s disease,”
  17. (1988). Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs,”
  18. (1999). Clinical value of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of regional cerebral metabolic and other parameters for early identification of Alzheimer’s disease,”
  19. (2005). Combined 123IFP-CIT and I-IBZM SPECT for the diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes: study on 72 patients,”
  20. D i n g ,T .S i n g h a l ,B .P l a n e t a - W i l s o ne ta l .
  21. (2010). Decreased brain serotonin transporter binding in the euthymic state of bipolar I but not bipolar II disorder:
  22. (1999). Diagnostic criteria for Parkinson disease,”
  23. (2007). Does combined imagingof the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic system increase the diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism?”
  24. (2010). Dopamine cell implantation
  25. (2002). Dopaminergic function and dopamine transporter binding assessed with positron emissiontomography in Parkinson disease,”
  26. (2004). e s s e ,H .B a r t h e l ,J .S c h w a r z ,O .S a b r i ,a n dU .M ¨ uller, “Advances in in vivo imaging of serotonergic neurons in neuropsychiatric disorders,”
  27. (2010). Early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: recommendations from diagnostic clinical guidelines,”
  28. (2008). Effect of phenserinetreatment onbrainfunctionalactivityandamyloid
  29. (2002). en,K.Y .T zen,M.C.Chenetal.,“Dopaminetransport er concentration is reduced in asymptomatic Machado-Joseph disease gene carriers,”
  30. (2007). Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer’s disease,”
  31. g a n ,L .N .Y a t h a m ,T .J .R u t h ,a n dP .F .L i d d l e , “Decreased serotonin 2A receptor densities in neurolepticnaive patients with schizophrenia: a pet study using
  32. (2003). H u a n g ,Y .H .C h i a n g ,J .C .L i n ,Y .H .C h o u ,C .Y .C h e n g , a n dR .S .L i u ,“ C r o s s o v e rs t u d yo f99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and 18F-FDOPA PET in Parkinson’s disease patients,”
  33. (2010). Higher striatal dopamine transporters in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder: a SPECT study with [99mTc] TRODAT-1,” Bipolar Disorders,
  34. (2004). Imaging Brain Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease with
  35. (2010). Imaging for early differential diagnosis of parkinsonism,”
  36. (2009). Imaging neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease,”
  37. Imaging of serotonin transporters and its blockade by citalopram in patients with major depression using a novel SPECT ligand
  38. (2007). Imaging the serotonin transporter during major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment,”
  39. (2000). Innis,“In vivo molecular imaging:ligand development and research applications,”
  40. (2010). Ivanoiu et al., “18Fflutemetamol amyloid imaging in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: a phase 2 trial,”
  41. (2000). K u h l ,S .M i n o s h i m a
  42. (1990). l i n ,G .S e t t e ,M .F i o r e l l ie ta l . ,“ Am e t h o df o rt h ei n vivo investigation in the serotonergic 5-HT2 receptors in the human cerebral cortex using positron emission tomography and 18F-labeled setoperone,”
  43. (1993). l i n ,J .C .B a r o n ,B .D u b o i se ta l . ,“ L o s so fb r a i n5 -
  44. (1997). M e e g a l l a ,K .P l
  45. (2000). M o z l e y ,J .S .S c h n e i d e r ,P .D .A c t o ne ta l . ,“ B i n d i n g of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to dopamine transporters in patients with Parkinson’s disease and in healthy volunteers,”
  46. (1990). Modulation of serotonin release: interactions between the serotonin transporter and autoreceptors,”
  47. (2010). Neuroprotection and imaging studies
  48. (2010). Norepinephrine transporter occupancy by antidepressant in human brain using positron emission tomography with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D,”
  49. (2010). o l b o o m ,W .M .V a nD e rF l i e r ,J .B o v e r h o ff et al., “Molecular imaging in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: visualassessmentof[11C]PIBand[18F]FDDNP PETimages,”
  50. (2006). o u r n a lo fN e u r a lT r a n s m i s s i o n ,
  51. (2001). Occupancy of serotonin transporters by paroxetine and citalopram during treatment of depression: a [11C]DASB PET imaging study,” American JournalofPsychiatry,vol.158,no.11,pp.1843–1849,
  52. (2010). ose nb e r g,Y .Zhoue tal. ,“ I nvi v oimagingof amyloiddepositioninAlzheimerdiseaseusingtheradioligand 18F-AV-45
  53. (2006). P a r s e y ,R .S .H a s t i n g s ,M .A .O q u e n d oe ta l . ,“ L o w e r serotonin transporter binding potential in the human brain during major depressive episodes,”
  54. (1999). P e t e r s e n ,G .E .S m i t h ,S .C .W a r i n g ,R .J .I v n i k
  55. (2004). Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer’s disease,”
  56. (2008). PET imaging of amyloid deposition in patients with mild cognitive impairment,”
  57. (2004). PET imaging of amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease,”
  58. (1999). PET imaging of serotonin 1A receptor binding in depression,”
  59. (2007). PINK1 mutation in Taiwanese early-onset parkinsonismml: clinical, genetic, and dopamine transporter studies,”
  60. (2006). Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and prediction of dementia,”
  61. (2009). Positron emission tomography imaging demonstrates correlation between behavioral recovery and correction of dopamine neurotransmission after gene therapy,”
  62. (2006). Randomized controlled trial of intraputamenal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion
  63. (2001). Rate of progression in Parkinson’s disease: a 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa PET study,”
  64. (2004). Reduced serotonin type 1 receptor binding in panic disorder,”
  65. (2007). Safety and tolerability of gene therapy with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) borne GAD gene for Parkinson’sdisease: an open label, phase I trial,”
  66. (2008). Safety and tolerability of intraputaminal delivery of CERE-120 (adeno-associatedvirusserotype 2-neurturin) topatientswith idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: an open-label, phase I trial,”
  67. (2007). Selvaraj et al., “5-HTT binding in recovered depressed patients and healthy volunteers: a positron emissiontomographystudy with [11C]DASB,”
  68. (2002). Serotonergic dysregulation in bipolar disorders: a literature review of serotonergic challenge studies,”
  69. (2010). Serotonin receptor imaging: clinically useful?”
  70. (1988). Stereoselective binding of 11C-raclopride in living human brain - A search for extrastriatal central D2-dopamine receptors by
  71. (2010). Target-specific PET probes for neurodegenerative disorders related to dementia,”
  72. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Associations between cognitive, functional, and FDG-PET measures of decline in AD and MCI,” Neurobiology of Aging.
  73. (2002). The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics,”
  74. (2010). The clinical significance of creativity in bipolar disorder,”
  75. (2008). Therapeutic drug monitoring in neuropsychopharmacology: does it hold its promises?”
  76. (2001). Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease,”
  77. (2004). Verhoeff,A .A .W i l s o n ,S .T a k e s h i t ae ta l . ,“ I n -vivo imaging of Alzheimer disease β-amyloid with [11C]SB-13
  78. (2004). W e n g ,T .C .Y e n ,M .C .C h e ne ta l . ,“ S e n s i t i v i t ya n d specificity of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging in differentiatingpatients withidiopathicParkinson’sdiseasefromhealthy subjects,”
  79. (2005). Wintering et al., “123IADAM binding to serotonin transporters in patients with major depression and healthy controls: a preliminary study,”
  80. (2001). y ,a n dG .T i n g , “Differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease and vascular parkinsonism by [99mTc]-TRODAT-1,”
  81. (2007). Y a n g ,W .J .Y a o
  82. (2005). Z.Szab´ o,B.Kany´ oe ta l . ,“ D o p a mi n et ra n sp o rt e r availability in medication free and in bupropion treated depression: a 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,”