Spontaneous intracardiac thrombosis is rarely reported in animals, particularly nonhuman primates. The finding of 2 cases of intracardiac thrombi in mustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) that died as a consequence of congestive heart failure prompted us to do a retrospective study to determine the frequency of this condition. Clinical records, necropsy reports, and tissues from 60 mustached tamarins that died or were euthanized between 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. Of the 60 monkeys whose cases were reviewed, 10 (16.6%) had intracardiac thrombi, and 4 (6.6%) had dissecting aortic aneurysms. Of the 10 animals with intracardiac thrombosis, 3 had left ventricular involvement alone; 4 monkeys had thrombi only in the right ventricle, and the remaining 3 animals exhibited thrombi in both ventricles. Myocardial fibrosis and chronic renal disease were common findings in affected animals. The causes of the intracardiac thrombosis in the tamarins in the present study are not known, but the clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions suggest that congestive heart failure secondary to cardiomyopathy is the primary contributor. In addition, the cause of the aortic dissecting aneurysms in the tamarins in this study is not known. Further studies are required to determine whether factors including aortic curvature, genetic background, or hypertension—alone or in combination—play a role. To our knowledge, the current retrospective study is the first report of intracardiac thrombosis and aortic aneurysms in mustached tamarins
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