Prostatic lesions on routine staining sometimes cause diagnostic dilemma especially in premalignant lesions like atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Benign small acinar lesions also may be difficult to differentiate from small acinar adenocarcinoma. An important differentiating point is the loss of basal cell layer in adenocarcinoma and its presence in benign lesions. Basal cell markers (e.g. 34βE12 cytokeratin) & proliferative markers (e.g. AgNOR and PCNA) can help in this regard. Total 60 cases of different prostatic lesions studied. After history taking, clinical examination, radiological & other investigations were done. Routine H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining against 34βE12 cytokeratin & proliferative markers (AgNOR & PCNA) was performed. Statistically significant differences found in expression of 34βE12 cytokeratin and proliferative markers between benign, premalignant and malignant prostatic lesions. Basal cell markers and proliferative markers are important parameters to distinguish between different benign, premalignant and malignant prostatic lesions
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