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Does Dietary Intake by Tehranian Adults Align with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans? Observations from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

By Parvin Mirmiran, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Mahsa Jessri, L. Kathleen Mahan, Niloofar Shiva and Fereidoun Azizi


The aim of this study was to compare dietary intakes by Tehranian adults with recent dietary guidelines for the Americans. The study made a cross-sectional assessment of the dietary patterns of Tehranian adults using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. It included 2,510 subjects (1,121 men and 1,389 women) aged 19-70 years. They were the participants of the third follow-up survey of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2005-2008). The dietary patterns were assessed using the latest World Health Organization (WHO)'s nutritional goals and Dietary Guidelines for the Americans Adherence Index (DGAI) 2005. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] DGAI score for this population was 8.31 (1.9). Participants in the highest quartile category of DGAI were more likely to be female, older, non-smoking, and physically active than those in the lowest quartile category (p<0.001). Percentage of participants meeting the DGA recommendations waslow, especially for starchy vegetables (2.3%), orange vegetables (16.2%), lean meat (9.2%), grains (12.0%), and legumes (6.4%). Over-consumption of grains was observed in almost half of the participants while approximately 20% of the subjects over-consumed milk and meat groups. Intakes of most nutrients examined were significantly associated with the DGAI 2005 score (p<0.001), except for vitamin E, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. The least adherence with the WHO goals was observed with n-3 PUFAs, sodium, fruit, and vegetable intakes. The results revealed that the dietary patterns of most Tehranian adults did not comply with the 2005 DGA and nutritional goals of WHO/Food and Agriculture Organization

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Publisher: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
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