Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS) in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterised by atypical manifestations of opportunistic pathogens. These occur in patients experiencing improvement in CD4 cell counts following receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Although well established as a syndrome, IRIS still presents challenges in diagnosis and management. We report five cases of IRIS with diverse clinical presentations and due to different infectious aetiologies. A review of the published literature on this syndrome is also included
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