Recent developments in the field of targeted therapy have led to the discovery of a new drug, plerixafor, that is a specific inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor. Plerixafor acts in concert with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to increase the number of stem cells circulating in the peripheral blood (PB). Therefore, it has been applied in the field of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. We analyzed retrospectively data regarding stem cell mobilization with plerixafor in a cohort of 61 patients suffering from multiple myeloma (N = 23), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (N = 20), or Hodgkin’s lymphoma (N = 18). At least one previous mobilization attempt had failed in 83.6% of these patients, whereas 16.4% were predicted to be poor mobilizers. The median number of CD34+ cells in the PB after the first administration of plerixafor was 22/μL (range of 0–121). In total, 85.2% of the patients proceeded to cell collection, and a median of two (range of 0–4) aphereses were performed. A minimum of 2.0 × 106 CD34+ cells per kilogram of the patient’s body weight (cells/kg b.w.) was collected from 65.6% of patients, and the median number of cells collected was 2.67 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg b.w. (0–8.0). Of the patients, 55.7% had already undergone autologous stem cell transplantation, and the median time to neutrophil and platelet reconstitution was 12 and 14 days, respectively. Cases of late graft failure were not observed. We identified the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and previous radiotherapy as independent factors that contributed to failure of mobilization. The current report demonstrates the satisfactory efficacy of plerixafor plus G-CSF for stem cell mobilization in heavily pre-treated poor or predicted poor mobilizers
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