Suppression of Prostate Cancer Cell Rolling and Adhesion to Endothelium by 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3


Adhesion of circulating prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the microvascular endothelium is a critical step during cancer metastasis. To study PCa cell rolling and adhesion behavior, we developed a dynamic flow-based microtube system to mimic the microvascular environment. We found that PCa cell rolling capacity is mediated by E-selectin and can be enhanced by stromal cell-derived factor-1 under different wall shear stresses. Using this device, we tested if the chemopreventive agent, vitamin D, could interfere with PCa cell adhesion. We found that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VD), the bioactive form of vitamin D, reduced PCa cell rolling numbers and increased rolling velocities resulting in a significant decreased number of PCa cells adhering to the microtube. The inhibitory effects of 1,25-VD on PCa cell heterotypic adhesion were further confirmed using microvascular endothelial cells in a static condition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 1,25-VD can increase E-cadherin expression in PCa cells and promote the homotypic cell-cell aggregation, which can then hinder PCa cell adhesion to the endothelium. Blocking E-cadherin with a neutralizing antibody can reverse 1,25-VD-mediated suppression of PCa cell adhesion to the endothelium. Taken together, our data revealed that 1,25-VD promoted PCa cell aggregation by increasing E-cadherin expression, thus interfering with circulating PCa cell adhesion to microvascular endothelial cells and potentially reducing their metastatic potential

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This paper was published in PubMed Central.

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