Reconstituted parenteral solutions of three surface-active anti-infective small-molecule drugs and solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a model surfactant) were studied to quantify the impact of sample preparation and handling on particle counts. Turbidimetry and light obscuration profiles were recorded as a function of agitation and shearing with and without the introduction of foam into the solutions. SDS solutions at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) show significantly greater sensitivity to shear and foam presence than SDS solution below the CMC: Values of >10 μm particles increased 8 fold over control (an unsheared sample) in the micellar solution vs. 4 fold particle count increase over control at a sub-micellar concentration. An even more significant increase in the ratio of particle count in sheared/unsheared solution is seen for >25 μm unit counts, due to the increased interference of foam with the measurement. Two commercial products, injection formulations of teicoplanin and cefotaxime sodium, as well as an investigational compound 1, showed an increase in scattering as a function of foam production. The impact of foaming was significant, resulting in an increase of turbidity and light obscuration measurements in all solutions. The results illustrate some of the challenges that are inherent to optically clear, homogeneous pharmaceutical injections containing compounds which have a tendency toward self-association and surfactant-like behavior
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