Article thumbnail

Metabolic Syndrome and Renal Injury

By Yi-Jing Sheen and Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu

Abstract

Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major global health issues. Current clinical markers used to reflect renal injury include albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Given the same eGFR level, urine albumin might be a better risk marker to predict progression of CKD and future development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Serum Cystatin C is emerging as a new biomarker for early detection of renal injury associated with MetS and cardiovascular risk. In addition to each component, MetS per se influences the incidence and prognosis of renal injury and the odds ratios increased with the increase in the number of metabolic abnormalities. Hyperinsulinemia, activation of rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increase of oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines are proposed to be the plausible biological link between MetS and CKD. Weight control, stick control of blood pressure, glucose, and lipids disorders may lead to lessening renal injury and even the subsequent CVD

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3065010
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2006). A .K u r a t a ,H .N i s h i z a w a ,S .K i h a r ae ta l . ,“ B l o c k a d eo f angiotensin II type-1 receptor reduces oxidative stress in adipose tissue and ameliorates adipocytokine dysregulation,”
  2. (2007). A randomized trial of a hypocaloric high-protein diet, with and without exercise, on weight loss, fitness, and markers of the Metabolic Syndrome in overweight and obese women,”
  3. (2008). a t s u m o t o ,E .N o g u c h i ,K .I s h i d a ,T .K o b a y a s h i
  4. (2010). Additive interaction of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease on cardiac hypertrophy, and risk of cardiovascular disease in hypertension,”
  5. (2008). ae ta l . ,“ M e t a b o l i c syndrome predicts new onset of chronic kidney disease in 5,829 patients with type 2 diabetes A 5-year prospective analysis of the Hong Kong diabetes registry,” Diabetes Care,
  6. (2008). An association between metabolic syndrome and the estimated glomerular filtration rate,”
  7. (2006). An emerging link between insulin resistance and inflammation,”
  8. (2010). Antiproteinuric effect of cilnidipine in hypertensive japanese treated with renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors—a multicenter, open, randomized trial using 24-hour urine collection,”
  9. (2007). Are patients who have metabolic syndrome without diabetes at risk for developing chronic kidney disease? Evidence based on data from a large cohort screening population,”Clinical
  10. (2010). Association between cystatin C and inflammation
  11. (2007). Association between the metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease
  12. (2010). Association of cystatin-C with metabolic syndrome in normal glucose-tolerant subjects
  13. (2006). Association of physical activity and renal function in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome: a review of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  14. (2002). Association of the insulin resistance syndrome and microalbuminuria among nondiabetic native Americans. The Inter-Tribal Heart Project,” J o u r n a lo ft h eA m e r i c a nS o c i e t yo fN e p h r o l o g y ,v o l .1 3 ,n o .6 ,
  15. (2008). Bj¨ orn et al., “Effect of sibutramineon weightreduction in womenwith polycysticovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,”
  16. (2009). Blood pressure load, proteinuria and renal function in pre-hypertensive children,”
  17. (2010). C .C h a n g ,Y .F .C h i u ,K .C .S h i he ta l .
  18. (2006). C h o i ,S .H .R y u ,a n dK .B .L e e ,“ T h er e l a t i o n s h i p of microalbuminuria with metabolic syndrome,”
  19. (2008). Cardiorenal syndrome,”
  20. (2005). Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease,”
  21. (1999). Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation.European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance
  22. (2009). Cond´ es et al., “Cystatin C is associated with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors in a hypertensive population,”Journal of the
  23. (2007). Cystatin C as a risk factor for outcomes in chronic kidney disease,”
  24. (2010). Cystatin C in acute kidney injury,”
  25. (2009). D u a n ,M .G .U s h e r ,a n dR .M .M o r t e n s e n ,“
  26. (2010). D´ ıez, “Adipose tissue in renal disease: clinical significance and prognostic implications,”
  27. (1998). Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.
  28. (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/NationalHeart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement—executive summary,”
  29. (2006). Directly measured insulin resistance and the assessment of clustered cardiovascular risks in hypertension,”
  30. Disappearance of microalbuminuria in a patient with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in the setting of an intense exercise and dietary program with sustained weight reduction,” DiabetesCare,vol.27,no.7,pp.1754–1755,2004.
  31. (2005). e i ,S .W .K u o ,D .A .W ue ta l . ,“ T h er e l a t i o n s h i p sb e t w e e n insulin resistanceand components of metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese Asians,”
  32. (2010). e s o l y ,K .S i k o r s k i ,C . - K .L e e ,a n dH .A . R .B l u y s s e n ,“ S u p -pressor of cytokine signaling and accelerated atherosclerosis in kidney disease,”
  33. (2008). Early Improvements in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers are induced by pravastatin in nondiabetic subjects with hypercholesterolemia,”
  34. (2002). Effect of blood pressure loweringand antihypertensive drug classonprogression of hypertensive kidney disease: results from the AASK trial,”
  35. (2010). Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on
  36. (1997). Effect of orlistat, micronised fenofibrate and their combination on metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients with the metabolic syndrome: the FenOrli study,”
  37. (2002). Effect of pravastatin on proteinuria in patients with well-controlled hypertension,”
  38. (2010). Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoproteininduced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway,”
  39. (2006). Epidemic of childhoodobesity:implicationsforkidneydisease,”Advances in
  40. (2001). Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),”
  41. (2006). Fogo,“Plasminogenactivator inhibitor1 in chronic kidney disease: evidence and mechanisms of action,”JournaloftheAmerican
  42. (2010). Fukami,and S.Okuda, “Irbesartan inhibits albumin-elicited proximal tubular cell apoptosisandinjuryInvitro,”ProteinandPeptideLetters,v ol.
  43. (2003). H a r o u n ,B .G .J a a r
  44. (2010). h e n ,D .Y a n g
  45. (2004). h e n ,P .M u n t n e r ,L .L .H a m me ta l . ,“ T h em e t a b o l i c syndrome and chronic kidney disease in U.S. adults,”
  46. (2006). h e u ,S .Y .C h u a n g
  47. (2007). h e u ,Y .D .I .C h e n ,C .Y .Y ue ta l . ,“ C - r e a c t i v e protein gene polymorphism 1009A>G is associated with serum CRP levels in Chinese men: a TCVGHAGE study,”
  48. (2007). H s i e h ,Y I .J .H u n g ,D U .A .W ue ta l . ,“ I m p a c to f clinical characteristics of individual metabolic syndrome on the severityofinsulinresistance inChineseadults,”Journal of
  49. (2005). How obesity causes diabetes: not a tall tale,”
  50. (2010). Hyperlipidemia and long-term outcomes in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease,”
  51. (2009). Hypertension goals in advanced-stage kidney disease,”
  52. (2009). Hypertriglyceridemia: an independent risk factor of chronic kidney disease in Taiwanese adults,”
  53. (2010). Insulin resistance and inflammationmayhaveanadditionalroleinthelinkbetween cystatin C and cardiovascular disease
  54. (1998). Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventionaltreatment and risk of complications
  55. (2010). Intensive bloodpressure controlinhypertensive chronickidneydisease,”New
  56. (2010). Lipids in chronic kidney disease,”
  57. (2010). M i s h r a ,N .T y a g i ,U .S e n ,I .G .J o s h u a ,a n dS .C .T y a g i , “Synergism in hyperhomocysteinemia and diabetes: role of PPAR gamma and tempol,” Cardiovascular Diabetology,v o l . 9, article 49,
  58. (2007). M.Tozawa,C.Iseki,K.Tokashikiet al.,“Metabolic syndrome and risk of developing chronic kidney disease
  59. (2006). Macroalbuminuria is a better risk marker than low estimated GFR to identify individuals at risk for accelerated GFR loss in population screening,”
  60. (2008). Meta-analysis: effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease,”
  61. (2009). Metabolic syndrome abating the beneficial effect of pravastatintreatment onadhesionofendothelium by monocytes in subjects with hypercholesterolemia,”
  62. (2007). Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population aged 40 years and older,”
  63. (2006). Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Okinawa,
  64. (2006). Metabolic syndrome and CKD in a general Japanese population:
  65. (2008). Metabolic syndrome and kidney disease,”
  66. (2008). Metabolic syndrome and the development of
  67. (2010). Metabolic syndrome and the development of chronic kidney disease among 118 924 nondiabetic Taiwaneseinaretrospective cohort:originalArticle,”
  68. Metabolic syndrome, proteinuria, and the risk of progressive CKD in hypertensive
  69. (2006). Microalbuminuria as a target to improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes,”
  70. (2010). National kidney foundation consensus conference on cardiovascular and kidney diseases and diabetes risk: an integrated therapeutic approach to reduce events,”
  71. (2003). o r e s h ,B .C .A s t o r ,T .G r e e n e ,G .E k n o y a n ,a n dA .S . Levey, “Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National HealthandNutritionExaminationSurvey,”American
  72. (2010). Obesity and chronic kidney diseaseL’obesit` ac o r n ec a u s ad ii n s u ff icienza renale,”
  73. (2006). Obesity-related glomerulopathy: insights from gene expression profiles of the glomeruli derived from renal biopsy samples,”
  74. (2010). Obesityrelated renal injury in childhood,”
  75. (2009). Overweight, obesity and metabolic alterations in chronic kidney disease,”
  76. (2000). Plasma lipids and risk of developing renal dysfunction: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,”
  77. (2009). Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a valuable biomarker for predicting the metabolic syndrome (MS) in institutionalized elderly residents
  78. (2008). PPARs and the kidney in metabolic syndrome,”
  79. (2010). Prevalence, detection, and management of the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction: role of an obesity-centric definition,”
  80. (2006). Protection of the kidney by thiazolidinediones:an assessmentfrombench to bedside,”
  81. (2006). Protective effects of eugenol against oxidized LDLinduced cytotoxicity and adhesion molecule expression
  82. (2006). Protective effects of honokiol against oxidized LDLinduced cytotoxicity and adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells,”
  83. (2008). R o s i t o ,J .M .M a s s a r o ,U .H o ffmann et al., “Pericardial fat,visceralabdominalfat,cardiovasculardiseaseriskfactors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample the framingham heart study,”
  84. (2010). r z y b y l o w s k i ,J .M a l y s z k o ,a n dJ .M a l y s z k o ,“ K i d n e y functionassessedby eGFR, cystatinCandNGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in relation to age in heart allograft recipients,”
  85. (2009). Relationship between hyperuricemia (HUC) and metabolic syndrome (MS)
  86. (2010). Renal dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease mortality,”
  87. (1988). Role of insulin resistance in human disease,”
  88. (2010). s a i ,C . - F .H s i a o ,L . - T .H oe ta l . ,“ G e n e t i cv a r i a n t s of human urea transporter-2 are associated with metabolic syndrome in Asian population,” Clinica Chimica Acta,v o l .
  89. (2006). S h l i p a k ,R .K a t z ,M .J .S a r n a ke ta l . ,“ C y s t a t i nCa n d prognosis for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in elderly persons without chronic kidney disease,”
  90. (2002). s i a o ,L .T .H oe ta l . ,“ C l u s t e r i n ga n d heritability of insulin resistance in Chinese and Japanese hypertensive families: a Stanford-Asian Pacific Program in hypertension and insulin resistance sibling study,”
  91. (2009). S u n g ,S .Y .C h u a n g
  92. (2010). Screening for chronic kidney disease: which strategy?”
  93. (2007). The associationbetween microalbuminuria and metabolic syndrome in the general population in Japan: the Takahata study,”
  94. (2003). The effects of weight loss on renal function in patients with severe obesity,”
  95. (2005). The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition,”
  96. (2009). The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors—a population-based study,” BMC Public Health,v o l . 9, article 484,
  97. (2009). The renin angiotensin aldosterone system in hypertension: roles of insulin resistance and oxidative stress,”
  98. (1996). The role ofblood pressure as a risk factor for renal disease: a review of theepidemiologicevidence,”
  99. (2010). Therapeutic advantage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease,”
  100. (2009). Time-dependent association between metabolic syndrome and risk of CKD in Korean men without hypertension or diabetes,”
  101. (2010). Type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence among adults in Taiwan during 1999–2004: a national health insurance data set study,”
  102. (2007). u j i t a ,K .A n d o ,H .N i s h i m u r ae ta l . ,“ A n t i p r o t e i n u r i c effect of the calcium channel blocker cilnidipine added to renin-angiotensin inhibition in hypertensive patients with chronic renal disease,”
  103. (2005). u n g ,Y .C .C h e n ,D .P e ie ta l . ,“ S i b u t r a m i n ei m p r o v e s insulinsensitivitywithout alteration ofserum adiponectin
  104. (2005). u r e l l a ,J .C .L o ,a n dG .M .C h e r t o w ,“ M e t a b o l i c syndrome and the risk for chronic kidney disease among nondiabetic adults,”
  105. (2006). Uric acid: an additional component of metabolic syndrome?”
  106. (2009). Weight loss interventions in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,”
  107. (2010). Weight loss: a neglected intervention in the management of chronic kidney disease,”
  108. (2009). Who Should Be Targeted for CKD Screening? Impact of Diabetes, Hypertension,