While pleural effusion in multiple myeloma is relatively infrequent, myelomatous pleural effusion is extremely rare. We experienced a 61-year-old woman with IgD-lambda multiple myeloma and pleural effusion. The diagnosis was made originally by pleural biopsy, pleural fluid cytology and immunoelectropheresis of pleural fluid. Transient improvement of the pleural effusion was observed after administration of combination chemotherapy of vincristine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, prednisone (VMCP)/vincristine, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, prednisone (VCAP). Two months later, myelomatous pleural effusion recurred and no response to salvage therapy was observed. We reviewed the clinical feature of this case and literature concerning myelomatous pleural effusion
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