Wnt signaling mediates key developmental and homeostatic processes including stem cell maintenance, growth and cell fate specification, cell polarity and migration. Inappropriate activation of Wnt signaling is linked to a range of human disorders, most notably cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the Wnt/β-catenin cascade, signaling events converge on the regulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the crucial transcriptional regulator β-catenin. The emerging mechanisms by which ubiquitin modification of proteins controls cellular pathways comprise both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions. In nonproteolytic functions, ubiquitin acts as a signaling device in the control of protein activity, subcellular localization and complex formation. Here, we review and discuss recent developments that implicate ubiquitin-mediated mechanisms at multiple steps of Wnt pathway activation
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