Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the absorption, metabolism, and urinary excretion of olive oil phenols. We also estimated the intake of the various phenols in the Mediterranean area. To review the antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols, we included human and animal studies on the effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidative processes in the body. We excluded studies without a proper control treatment and studies in which the antioxidant effects of phenols could not be disentangled from those of the fatty acid composition of olive oil. Results: Bioavailability studies in humans show that the absorption of olive oil phenols is probably larger than 55 - 66 mol%, and that at least 5% is excreted in urine as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Animal studies suggest that phenol-rich olive oil lowers oxidisability of ex vivo low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles or lowers markers in urine of oxidative processes in the body. In five out of seven human studies, however, these effects of phenols were not found. There are no data on the phenol concentrations in plasma that are attainable by intake of olive oil. We estimated that 50 g of olive oil per day provides about 2 mg or similar to13 mumol of hydroxytyrosol-equivalents per day, and that the plasma concentration of olive oil phenols with antioxidant potential resulting from such an intake can be at most 0.06 mumol/l. This is much lower than the minimum concentrations of these phenols ( 50 - 100 mmol) required to show antioxidant activity in vitro. Conclusion: Although phenols from olive oil seem to be well absorbed, the content of olive oil phenols with antioxidant potential in the Mediterranean diet is probably too low to produce a measurable effect on LDL oxidisability or other oxidation markers in humans. The available evidence does not suggest that consumption of phenols in the amounts provided by dietary olive oil will protect LDL against oxidative modification to any important extent
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