Here we report on the existence of a new species of even-toed ungulate in the Brazilian Amazon, which we name Pecari maximus, the giant peccary. It represents the largest of living peccary species. One complete mitochondrial D-loop and two nuclear SINE PRE-1 DNA sequences of giant peccary compared with that of the sympatric and morphologically most similar collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) support full species status. The divergence time is estimated at 1.0¿1.2 million years before present. In contrast to other peccaries, which are gregarious and range semi-nomadically in large home ranges, giant peccaries appear to live in family groups containing only a pair of adults, with or without 1¿2 offspring. In view of recent developments in the interfluves where it lives and due to its limited distribution, we consider the giant peccary endangered
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