Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT OF NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS IN HONG KONG: AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY

By KAN CHAU CHU

Abstract

Since its inception, the attrition rate of teachers in the Native English Teachers (NETs) scheme in Hong Kong has been very high. Though the introduction of financial incentives has reduced this slightly, the problem remains, and this thesis explores an alternative explanation for the high attrition, in the field of cross-cultural adjustment. The thesis argues that the effectiveness of the NET scheme is affected by the extent to which issues of cross-cultural adjustment are addressed sufficiently, and that the high attrition rate can be explained, in part, by neglect of issues in cross-cultural adjustment, both in terms of the sojourners and of the host culture. A literature review indicates that cross-cultural adjustment has many different dimensions, and that levels of culture shock and cross-cultural adjustment depend, in part, on individuals’ characteristics. The thesis reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETs in Hong Kong, seen through different lenses and theories of cross-cultural adjustment, and using a grounded theory approach to data analysis. The empirical data gathered reveal a complex, differentiated and individualized view of cross-cultural adjustment, and that it changes in individuals over time. Cross-cultural adjustment is also seen to apply to host cultures and service providers as well as to the sojourners themselves. Serious shortcomings are found in the provision of suitable preparation, induction, training and ongoing support provided for NETs in Hong Kong in terms of cross-cultural adjustment, and recommendations are made for interventions with the sojourners, the schools and the Hong Kong government’s NETs scheme and associated training programmes

Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.dur.ac.uk:26
Provided by: Durham e-Theses

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2003a) Foreign teachers complain that compassionate leave lacks heart.
  2. (2003). (2003b) Even NETs fail the benchmark tests.
  3. (2003). (2003c). Boost training of native English teachers: report.
  4. (2002). (Re)writing the Word: Methodological Strategies and Issues in Qualitative Research.
  5. (2001). 200 posts to fill in NET and international sectors. South China Morning Post,
  6. (1975). A Behavioral Analysis of Culture Learning. In
  7. (2002). A Comparison of the Conceptions of Teaching English of Nativespeaking and Local Teachers in Hong Kong Primary Schools. A dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of
  8. (2000). A model of intercultural communication competence. In
  9. (1990). A Multifaceted Approach to Expatriate Retention doi
  10. (1988). A Multilevel Treatment Approach for Culture Shock Experienced by Sojourners. doi
  11. (1993). A New Conceptualization of Intercultural Adjustment and the Goals of Training. doi
  12. (1975). A Role Making Model in Formal of Reganizations: A Developmental Approach.
  13. (1989). A Study of Cross-cultural Effectiveness: Theoretical Issues, Practical Applications. doi
  14. (1985). Acculturation and Personality as Predictors of Stress in Japanese and Japanese-Americans”. doi
  15. (1986). Acculturation Indices as a Means of Confirming Cultural Differences”, doi
  16. (1994). Acculturation Strategies, Psychological Adjustment and Sociocultural Competence During Cross-cultural Transitions” doi
  17. (1940). Acculturation. Quoted in D. Lawton
  18. (1982). Active Coping Processes, Coping Dispositions, and Recovery From Surgery” doi
  19. (1979). Adaptational Problems of Vietnamese Refugees I: doi
  20. (1997). Address by the Chief Executive, The Honourable Tung Chee Hwa at the Provisional Legislative
  21. (1955). Adjustment in a Foreign Society: Norwegian Fulbright Grantees Visiting
  22. (2001). Adjustment of mainland Chinese academics and students to Singapore. doi
  23. (1994). Adult Personality Development 1. Thousand Oaks, doi
  24. (1982). Age Differences in the Use of Coping, doi
  25. (1966). American Students Abroad: Professional vs. doi
  26. (1980). An Analysis of Coping in a Middle-aged Community Sample. doi
  27. (1981). An empirical study of Canadian technical assistance. doi
  28. (2002). An Examination of Crossover and Spillover Effects of Spousal and Expatriate Cross-cultural Adjustment on Expatriate Outcomes. doi
  29. (2003). Antecedents and Consequences of Employees' Adjustment to Overseas Assignment: A Meta-analytic Review. Applied Psychology. doi
  30. (2002). Antecedents and Consequences of the Perceived Adjustment of Japanese Expatriates in the USA. doi
  31. (1991). Antecedents to Cross-cultural Adjustment for Expatriates in Pacific Rim Assignments. Human Relations, doi
  32. (1958). Anthropologie structurale. doi
  33. (1928). Anthropology and Modern Life. doi
  34. (2009). Applying the Principles: Instruments for Intercultural Business Training.
  35. (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an Account doi
  36. (1989). Assessing Coping Strategies: A Theoretically Based Approach” doi
  37. (1969). Attitudes and attraction. In doi
  38. (1990). Basics of Qualitative research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. doi
  39. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, doi
  40. (2001). Becoming Intercultural: An Integrating Theory of Communication and Cross-cultural Adaptation. Thousand Oaks, doi
  41. (2009). Becoming Interculturally Competent in a Third Space in
  42. (2009). Becoming interculturally competent through education and training. Multilingual Matters. doi
  43. (1987). Behavioral Dimensions of Intercultural Effectiveness: A Replication and Extension” doi
  44. (1979). Behavioural assessment of communication competency and the prediction of cross-cultural adaptation. doi
  45. (2005). Better deal breathes life into ailing NET scheme. (2005a). South China Morning Post,
  46. (1976). Beyond Culture. doi
  47. (1991). Beyond the Chinese Face: Insights from Psychology. doi
  48. (1995). Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years. doi
  49. (2005). Bureaucrats know which hand to kiss while NETs unravel.
  50. (2006). Canadian Cultural Poesis: Essays on Canadian Culture.
  51. (2007). China now: doing business in the world’s most dynamic market.
  52. (1994). Chinese and Australian concepts of intelligence. doi
  53. (1983). Cognitive-behavioural preparations for surgery: some theoretical and methodological concerns. doi
  54. (1999). Communicating across cultures.
  55. (1988). Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: an Integrative Theory Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. doi
  56. (1977). Communication Patterns of Foreign Immigrants in the Process of Acculturation. doi
  57. (1976). Communication Patterns of Foreign Immigrants in the Process of Acculturation. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,
  58. (1994). Competitive Frontiers. doi
  59. (1994). Conceptualizations of Culture.
  60. (1983). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Sage publications: doi
  61. (1993). Context and Culture in Language Teaching. doi
  62. (2001). Coping and Adjustment of Western Expatriate Managers in Hong Kong. doi
  63. (1986). Coping in Stressful Episodes: The Role of Differences, Environmental factors, and Situational Characteristics. doi
  64. (1986). Coping with Stress: Divergent Strategies of Optimists and Pessimists. doi
  65. (1977). Coping with Unfamiliar Cultures. In
  66. (1988). Correlates of Work and Nonwork Stress and Satisfaction Among American Insulated Sojourners. Human Relations, doi
  67. (1990). Correlative National Self-identity of Polish Immigrants in Canada and United States”. In
  68. (1988). Cross-cultural Adjustment. doi
  69. (1995). Cross-cultural and intercultural applications of expectancy violations theory.
  70. (1994). Cross-cultural Differences in the Self Concept: A Test of Hofstede’s Individualism/Collectivism Distinction”. doi
  71. (1981). Cross-Cultural Encounters. doi
  72. (1984). Cross-cultural rsesrch with locus of control construct. doi
  73. (1990). Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review and Theoretical Framework for Further Research” doi
  74. (1989). Cross-cultural Transitions and Sojourners Adjustment in Singapore”. doi
  75. (1999). Cultural Diversity and Work Group Effectiveness: An Experimental Study”. doi
  76. (1996). Cultural Fit: A New Perspective on Personality and Sojourner Adjustment” doi
  77. (1994). Cultural Identity and Global Process. doi
  78. (1993). Cultural orientation and academic language use. In
  79. (1977). Culture Learning/Culture Teaching.
  80. (1967). Culture Shock and a Peace Corps Field Mental Health Program. doi
  81. (1987). Culture Shock and the Cross-culture Learning Experience.
  82. (1960). Culture Shock: Adjustments to New Cultural
  83. (1986). Culture Shock: Psychological Reactions to Unfamiliar Environments. doi
  84. (1983). Culture, Self-identity, and Work. doi
  85. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. doi
  86. (2007). Deep Culture The Hidden Challenges of Global Living. Multilingual Matters Ltd.
  87. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks,
  88. (2002). Developing Global Executives: The Lessons of International Experience.
  89. (1996). Development of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory. doi
  90. (1973). Deviant Behavior and Cultural Theory. Module in Anthropology, 37. Menlo Park,
  91. (2001). Different Perspectives on Selection for International Visiting Panel doi
  92. (1999). Dimensions, Determinants, and Differences in the Expatriate Adjustment Process. doi
  93. (1965). Disappointed Guests. London: doi
  94. (1990). Displacing the “native speaker”: Expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. doi
  95. (1987). Does Coping Help? A Reexamination of the Relation between Coping and Mental Health. doi
  96. (1997). Dual-Career Expatriates: Expectations, Adjustment and Satisfaction with International Relocation”, doi
  97. (1986). Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes. doi
  98. (1968). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (E. Fischoff, doi
  99. (1984). Education Commission Report No. 1 Hong Kong: Government Printer Education Commission
  100. (1983). Education for the Intercultural Experience (2 nd Ed.),
  101. (1990). Education in Hong Kong Pre-1841 to 1941: Fact & Opinion. Hong Kong: Hong Kong doi
  102. (2003). Educators propose areas for cuts.
  103. (1989). Effects of anxiety on impression formation in a group context. doi
  104. (1999). Effects of Coping Strategies on Sociocultural and Psychological Adjustment of Western Expatriate Managers in the PRC. doi
  105. (1991). Emotional well-being of Taiwan students in the U.S.: An examination of pre- to post-arrival differential. doi
  106. (1992). Ethnicity, Immigration and Mental Illusess: A critical review of Australian research.
  107. (2006). Ethnographic pedagogy and evaluation in short-term study abroad.
  108. (1983). Ethnography: Principles in Practice. doi
  109. (2006). Evaluation of the Native-speaking English Teacher Scheme for Primary Schools in Hong Kong
  110. (2005). Evaluation of the native-speaking English teacher scheme for primary schools in Hong Kong: Second annual report. Melbourne:
  111. (1982). Executive Stress Associated with Expatriation ad Repatriation.
  112. (1999). Expatriate Adjustment and Commitment: The Role of Host-unit Treatment”. doi
  113. (1997). Expatriate Adjustment as a Multifaceted Phenomenon: Individual and Organizational Level Predictors”. doi
  114. (1996). Expatriate Management Policies in UK Companies New to the International Scene”, doi
  115. (1994). Expatriate Managers and the Psychological Contract. doi
  116. (1990). Expatriation: Challenges and Recommendations”, doi
  117. (1990). Expectations, Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave of doi
  118. (1994). Explaining intercultural differences in nonverbal communication. In
  119. (1999). Exploring Corporate Strategy. doi
  120. (1993). Exploring the dimensions of Chinese person perception with indigenous and imported constructs: Creating a culturally balanced scale. doi
  121. (2007). Factors Affecting NET Satisfaction and Attrition: A Case Study of Three Native English Teachers in Hong Kong. a dissertation submitted in partial 237 fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of doi
  122. (2007). Factors Affecting NET Satisfaction and Attrition: A Case Study of Three Native English Teachers in Hong Kong. a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of doi
  123. (1990). Factors Related to the Adjustment of Japanese Expatriates Managers
  124. (1989). Final evaluation report: Expatriate English Language teachers Pilot Scheme Hong Kong: The British Council Brown,
  125. (1991). Final Report on the Management of the Expatriate Teachers in the Expatriate Language Teachers Modified Scheme. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
  126. (1997). Finance Committee Agenda Item Paper for Finance Committee Meeting
  127. (1989). Five Response Self-description as a Predictor of Success and Failure in Adolescent Exchange Students”. doi
  128. (1992). Global Assignments: Successfully Expatriating and Repatriating International Managers. San Francisco:
  129. (1990). Global Leadership Competencies: Managing to a Different Drumbeat. doi
  130. (2005). Globalisation puts English on agenda.
  131. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. doi
  132. (2001). Grounded Theory in Management Research. doi
  133. (1994). Grounded Theory Methodology: An Overview.
  134. (1996). Handbook of International Training (2 nd edn.
  135. (2002). Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith – a failure of analysis. doi
  136. (1996). How Much Woe When We Go: A Quantitative Method for Predicting Culture Shock. doi
  137. (1987). How to become Japanese: A guide for North Amercians.
  138. (1976). Human Adaption.
  139. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge: doi
  140. (1928). Human Migration and the Marginal Man.” doi
  141. (1985). If It changes It Must be a Process: Studies of Emotion and Coping in Three Stages of a College Examination’. doi
  142. (2001). Indigenous Chinese Personality Constructs: Is the Five-Factor Model complete? doi
  143. (1996). Individual Characteristics Related to Expatriate Success”, presented at the symposium Learning to Succeed in Unusual Circumstances: The Case of Expatriates and Their Spouses at the Academy of Management Meeting,
  144. (1988). Influences of Time, Ethnicity, and Attachment on Depression in
  145. (1993). Initial Examination of a Model of Intercultural Adjustment. doi
  146. (2007). Intercultural Communication in Contexts. Arizona doi
  147. (2007). Intercultural competence: The status and future of a controversial concept. doi
  148. (2003). Intercultural experience and drama. In
  149. (1990). International Dimensions of Human Resource Management, doi
  150. (2006). International recruitment, selection, and assessment. London : Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
  151. (1998). International success: Selecting, developing, and supporting expatriate managers.
  152. (1998). International success: Selecting, developing, and supporting expatriate managers. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. Women on Global Assignments.
  153. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oask, doi
  154. (2003). Introduction. In
  155. (1992). Is Cross-cultural Training of Expatriate Managers Effective? doi
  156. (1996). Language programme evaluation: theory and practice. Cambridge: doi
  157. (1995). Learning styles and culturally diverse students: A literature review.
  158. (2007). Leaving promoted by more than greed.
  159. (2005). Legislative Council Education Panel Review of the Native-speaking English Teacher (NET)
  160. (1982). Life changes among the Vietnamese refugees. doi
  161. (1997). Life Satisfaction Among the Japanese Living Abroad”. doi
  162. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. doi
  163. (1982). Living abroad: Personal Adjustment and Personnel Policy in The Overseas Setting doi
  164. (1998). Make best use of native English teachers
  165. (1996). Managing Effectively in Asia.
  166. (1977). Maturity and Competence. doi
  167. (2005). Measuring the personalities of Chinese: QZPS versus NEO PI-R. doi
  168. (1978). Mental Health and Occupational Mobility in a Group of Immigrants. doi
  169. (1999). Modernity and Postmodern Culture. Buckingham and Philadelphia:
  170. (1994). More grounded theory methodology: a reader. Mill Valley, Calif :
  171. (1995). Multiracial couples: Black and white voices. Thousand Oaks, doi
  172. (1992). Native or non-native: Who’s worth more? doi
  173. (1997). Native-speaker Teachers of English in Hong Kong. Language and Education, doi
  174. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. doi
  175. (2000). Negotiating with helping systems: An example of grounded theory evolving through emergent fit. doi
  176. (2005). NET debate needs more positive focus.
  177. (2000). Net-working: Examples of Good Professional Practice within the NET Scheme. Hong Kong: Education Department, Government of the HKSAR.
  178. (2005). NETs want their views heard on hiring crisis.
  179. (1989). Nonverbal communication: The unspoken dialogue.
  180. (2003). On being ‘bicultural’ and ‘intercultural’. In
  181. (1988). On the move: Minimizing the Stress and Maximizing the Benefit of Relocation.
  182. (1987). On the potential to be an unethical researcher of children,
  183. (1999). One in three overseas English teachers set to quit. South China Morning Post,
  184. (1979). Open Systems and Closed Boundaries.
  185. (1973). Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors in pp 277-91. Procedures and Techniques. doi
  186. (1998). Pearls, pith, and provocations: common pitfalls in grounded theory research.
  187. (2007). Personality and Cultural Context of Negotiation: Are Western Personality Dimensions Relevant in Chinese Culture? Unpublished working paper,
  188. (1994). Predictors of Expatriate Adjustment. doi
  189. (1995). Predictors of Expatriate Manager Satisfaction in Asian Pacific Countries. doi
  190. (2003). Primary NETs face a grueling first year.
  191. (1871). Primitive Culture. London: Murray. Quoted in D. Lawton
  192. (1979). Problems in Cross-cultural Contact: A Literature Review. doi
  193. (1994). Psychological Acculturation via Identity Dynamics: Consequences for Subjective Well-bing”. In
  194. (1993). Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment During Cross-cultural Transitions: A Comparison of Secondary Students at Home and Abroad” doi
  195. (1999). Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment of Filipina Domestic Workers in Singapore”
  196. (1999). Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment of Filipina Domestic Workers in Singapore” In
  197. (2001). Psychological Barriers to Adjustment and How They Affect Coping Strategies: Western Business Expatriates in China. doi
  198. (1992). Psychology of Acculturation: Understanding Individuals Moving between Two Cultures. doi
  199. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. doi
  200. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, doi
  201. (2002). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. doi
  202. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among the Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, doi
  203. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education.
  204. (1988). Quantity and quality in social research. London: Unwin Hyman. doi
  205. (1996). Questions of Cultural Identity. doi
  206. (1943). Race and Racism. doi
  207. (1993). Reconstructing social identity. doi
  208. (1990). Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for An Action Sensitive Pedagogy.
  209. (1998). Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity
  210. (1984). Runzheimer Executive Report
  211. (1975). Search for Maturity. doi
  212. (1981). Selecting and Training of Personnel for Overseas Assignments.
  213. (1987). Selection and Training Procedures of U.S. doi
  214. (1996). Setback for expat teaching scheme.
  215. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social-cognitive View. Englewood Cliffs. doi
  216. (1990). Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. doi
  217. (1992). Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Bilingual Education. doi
  218. (1963). Some Factors in the Adjustment of Foreign Nationals. doi
  219. (2001). Sources of Support and Expatriate Performance: the Mediating Role of Expatriate Adjustment. doi
  220. (1997). Special Administrative Region doi
  221. (1980). Strangers to These Shores. doi
  222. (1986). Tactics of implementation, doi
  223. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Multilingual Matters.
  224. (1985). The Adaptation of Recent Soviet Immigrants in Australia”.
  225. (1993). The Adjustment of Japanese Expatriates to Living and Working in Britain. doi
  226. (1991). The Cause of Sojourner Adaptation: A new Test of the U-Curve Hypothesis”. Human Resource Planning,
  227. (1928). The Child in America.
  228. (1975). The creativity of the school in Britain. In
  229. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. London and
  230. (1998). The culture the learner brings: A bridge or a barrier? In
  231. (1984). The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time. doi
  232. (1967). The Design of Cross-cultural Training: An Alternative to the University Model. doi
  233. (1985). The Dimensions of Expatriate Acculturation: A Review. doi
  234. (2003). The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research. In doi
  235. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory : strategies for qualitative research Imprint New York : Aldine de Gruyter Giddens, doi
  236. (1996). The Effectiveness of Cross-cultural Training for Expatriates: An Assessment of the Literature on the Issue. doi
  237. (1998). The Enlightened Eye: Qualitative Inquiry and the Enhancement of Educational Practice. Upper Saddle River, doi
  238. (1985). The Executive Family: An Overlooked Variable in International Assignments. doi
  239. (1987). The Expectations and Experiences of a Sojourning Temporary Resident Abroad: A Preliminary Study. doi
  240. (1994). The German Executive in the U.S. Work and Social Environment: Exploring Role Demands” doi
  241. (1996). The Handbook of Chinese Psychology. Hong Kong: doi
  242. (1989). The Influence of the Spouse on American Expatriate Adjustment in Overseas Assignments, doi
  243. (2003). The Intercultural Development Inventory: A measure of intercultural sensitivity. doi
  244. (1973). The Interpretation of Culture. doi
  245. (1937). The Marginal Man. doi
  246. (2000). The Monitoring and evaluation of the Native-speaking English Teacher Scheme (MENETS). The Hong Kong Institute of Education.
  247. (2006). The Native-English teaching programme in Hong Kong: a critical ethnography, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
  248. (1994). The Ownership of English. doi
  249. (1986). The Power and Politics of English. World Englishes 5(2-3) doi
  250. (2009). The Pragmatics of Intercultural Competence
  251. (1990). The Prediction of Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment during Cross-Cultural Transitions”. doi
  252. (1993). The Psychological Adjustment of the Chinese Community in Britain: doi
  253. (1999). The Quality of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, doi
  254. (2003). The re-validation of Chinese personality structure and the results from adjectives evaluation.
  255. (1996). The Relationship between Crosscultural Adjustment and the Personality Variables of Self-efficacy and Self-monitoring”. doi
  256. (1978). The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. doi
  257. (2005). The role of other orientation on the relationship between institutional distance and expatriate adjustment. doi
  258. (1959). The Silent Language. doi
  259. (1982). The Social Psychology of Cross-cultural Relations” doi
  260. (1960). The Stranger Group in a Cross-cultural Situation. doi
  261. (1944). The Stranger. doi
  262. (1983). The Stress Factor in Intercultural Relations. In doi
  263. (1975). The Transitional Experience: An Alternative View of Culture Shock. doi
  264. (1998). The U-curve on trial: A longitudinal study of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during Weaver, doi
  265. (1980). Theorectical Concepts that are Applicable to the Analysis of Ethnocentrism”. doi
  266. (1974). Theories of culture. doi
  267. (2002). Think International, think male: Why are Women not Selected for International Management Assignments? doi
  268. (1996). Toward a new generation of personality theories: Theoretical contexts for the five-factor model. In J.S. Wiggins (Ed.), The Five-Factor Model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp.51-87). doi
  269. (1987). Toward a Psychology of Dyadic Organizing. doi
  270. (1993). Towards Ethnorelativism: A Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity.
  271. (1966). Tradition and Change in a Thai University” In
  272. (1989). Training the International Assignee”,
  273. (1990). Traits, Attitudes, and Skills that are related to Intercultural Effectiveness and Their Implications for Cross-cultural Training: A Review of the Literature”, doi
  274. (2002). Transcultural self, multicultural world: Dialectic or disaster. Paper presented at the Transcultural Self: Experiencing Languages and Intercultural Communication.
  275. (1995). Venezuelan Culture Assimilator for Training United States Professionals Conducting Business in Venezuela. doi
  276. (2002). Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.
  277. (1968). War and Peace in Global Village.
  278. (2003). What hope for benchmark tests? (2003a). South China Morning Post,
  279. (1993). Where’s the Culture in Cross-Cultural Transition? doi
  280. (1991). Why Companies Prefer to Use Expatriates?
  281. with (eds) (2009) Becoming Interculturally Competent through Education and Training. doi
  282. (1996). Work experiences, work adjustment and psychological Aspects of Expatriate Job Success. New Approaches to Employee Management, doi
  283. (1988). Work Role Transitions: A Study of American Expatriate Managers in Japans”. doi
  284. (1995). Working Abroad: A Hero’s Adventure”. doi
  285. (1996). Working in Japan: Lessons from Women Expatriates.
  286. (1997). World society and the nation-state, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.