CD137 (4-1BB/tnfrsf9) has been shown to co-stimulate T cells. However, agonistic anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment can suppress CD4+ T cells, ameliorating autoimmune diseases, whereas it induces activation of CD8+ T cells, resulting in diverse therapeutic activity in cancer, viral infection. To investigate the CD137-mediated T cell suppression mechanism, we examined whether anti-CD137 mAb treatment could affect CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Intriguingly, anti-CD137 mAb injection significantly increased CD11b+Gr-1+ cells, peaking at days 5 to 10 and continuing for at least 25 days. Furthermore, this cell population could suppress both CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that, for the first time, anti-CD137 mAb treatment could induce CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs under normal conditions, suggesting a possible relationship between myeloid cell induction and CD137-mediated immune suppression
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