The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular complex that regulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β in response to exogenous pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Evidence from studies involving human genetics, human ex vivo mononuclear cell responses, and in vivo and in vitro murine models confirms the importance of the inflammasome and interleukin-1β in the pathogenesis of several inherited and complex diseases. The availability of several effective interleukin-1β targeted therapies has allowed for successful proof-of-concept studies in several of these disorders. However, many other diseases are likely to be mediated by the inflammasome and interleukin-1β, providing additional targets in the future
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