Article thumbnail

An avian influenza A(H11N1) virus from a wild aquatic bird revealing a unique Eurasian-American genetic reassortment

By Shailesh Pawar, Alok Chakrabarti, Sarah Cherian, Satish Pande, Madhuri Nanaware, Satish Raut, Biswajoy Pal, Santosh Jadhav, Sadhana Kode, Santosh Koratkar, Vishal Thite and Akhilesh Mishra


Influenza surveillance in different wild bird populations is critical for understanding the persistence, transmission and evolution of these viruses. Avian influenza (AI) surveillance was undertaken in wild migratory and resident birds during the period 2007–2008, in view of the outbreaks of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) H5N1 in poultry in India since 2006. In this study, we present the whole genome sequence data along with the genetic and virological characterization of an Influenza A(H11N1) virus isolated from wild aquatic bird for the first time from India. The virus was low pathogenicity and phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was distinct from reported H11N1 viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed maximum similarity with A/semipalmatedsandpiper/Delaware/2109/2000 (H11N6) and A/shorebird/Delaware/236/2003(H11N9) while the neuraminidase (NA) gene showed maximum similarity with A/duck/Mongolia/540/2001(H1N1). The virus thus possessed an HA gene of the American lineage. The NA and other six genes were of the Eurasian lineage and showed closer relatedness to non-H11 viruses. Such a genetic reassortment is unique and interesting, though the pathways leading to its emergence and its future persistence in the avian reservoir is yet to be fully established

Topics: Article
Publisher: Springer US
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (1938). A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints.
  2. (2007). A unique influenza A (H5N1) virus causing a focal poultry outbreak in
  3. (2006). An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza.
  4. (2007). Animal production and health Manual, Wild birds and avian influenza; An introduction to applied field research and disease sampling techniques
  5. (2005). Are ducks contributing to the endemicity of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in Asia?
  6. (2009). Avian influenza (H5N1) Outbreak among Wild Birds,
  7. (2005). Avian influenza surveillance in hunter-harvested waterfowl from the gulf coast of Texas
  8. (2009). Avian influenza surveillance in wild migratory, resident, domestic birds and in poultry in Maharashtra and Manipur, India, during avian migratory season 2006–2007.
  9. (2008). Characterization of the complete genome of influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated during the 2006 outbreak in poultry in India.
  10. (2009). Characterization of the influenza A H5N1 viruses of the 2008–09 outbreaks in India reveals a third introduction and possible endemicity.
  11. (2010). Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of Virus Genes
  12. (1999). Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays.
  13. (2008). Emerging influenza virus: a global threat.
  14. (2003). Epidemiology and control of influenza.
  15. (2007). Erythrocyte binding preference of avian influenza H5N1 viruses.
  16. Hou et al., Panorama phylogenetic diversity and distribution of type a influenza virus. PLoS One 4,
  17. (2007). Influenza in migratory birds and evidence of limited intercontinental virus exchange. PLoS Pathog.
  18. (2009). Isolation and pathotyping of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Indian poultry.
  19. (2004). Matrix gene of influenza A viruses isolated from wild aquatic birds: ecology and emergence of influenza A viruses.
  20. (2004). MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment.
  21. on Animal influenza diagnosis and surveillance,
  22. (2006). Phylogenetic analysis revealed genetic similarity of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from HPAI outbreaks in chickens in Maharashtra, India with those isolated from swan in Italy
  23. (1936). Predicting the global spread of H5N1 avian influenza.
  24. (2008). Surveillance of avian influenza viruses
  25. (2008). Takada et al., H2N5 influenza virus isolates from terns in Australia: genetic reassortants between those of the Eurasian and American lineages.
  26. (2008). The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.