Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone and its related structures secondary to an infection with pyogenic organisms. Because of the variety in disease presentations and pathophysiology of osteomyelitis, it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical studies. Therefore, animal models have been created for in vivo experimentation. A PubMed and OVID search was performed on March 31, 2008, using keywords osteomyelitis, animal model (rabbit, rat, mouse, avian, dog, sheep, and goat), and experimental osteomyelitis. The objective of this review was to provide a literature review of the animal models created to study osteomyelitis. The models were chosen based on historical relevance and clinical applicability. Numerous animal models exist to study both acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Many models have been created that allow investigators to study various aspects in the treatment and diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Based on the needs of investigators, an animal model must be carefully selected for ideal research, as no single model encompasses all aspects of osteomyelitis
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