Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Efficacy and safety of currently employed antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) continue to be less optimal in AF. Development of newer AADs has recently been made possible through a greater understanding of electro-pathophysiology of AF. Highly specific drugs acting on atria are currently being explored, although there is little data available on effectiveness of atrial specific agents in maintaining sinus rhythm. Combining AADs and non-AADs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase effectiveness of AADs in patients with AF. Controlled clinical trials are required to precisely define the efficacy of single agents versus various combinations in maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with AF. This review describes some of the most promising therapeutic approaches that may overcome some of the limitations of drugs used at present for the management of AF
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