Article thumbnail

Characteristics of Tetanic Force Produced by the Sternomastoid Muscle of the Rat

By Stanislaw Sobotka and Liancai Mu


The sternomastoid (SM) muscle plays an important role in supporting breathing. It also has unique anatomical advantages that allow its wide use in head and neck tissue reconstruction and muscle reinnervation. However, little is known about its contractile properties. The experiments were run on rats and designed to determine in vivo the relationship between muscle force (active muscle contraction to electrical stimulation) with passive tension (passive force changing muscle length) and two parameters (intensity and frequency) of electrical stimulation. The threshold current for initiating noticeable muscle contraction was 0.03 mA. Maximal muscle force (0.94 N) was produced by using moderate muscle length/tension (28 mm/0.08 N), 0.2 mA stimulation current, and 150 Hz stimulation frequency. These data are important not only to better understand the contractile properties of the rat SM muscle, but also to provide normative values which are critical to reliably assess the extent of functional recovery following muscle reinnervation

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (1966). A .J .R a p e r ,W .T .T h o m p s o nJ r . ,W .S h a p i r o ,a n dJ .L . Patterson, “Scalene and sternomastoid muscle function,”
  2. (2007). A .L .H u d s o n ,S .C .G a n d e v i a ,a n dJ .E .B u t l e r ,“ T h ee ffect of lung volume on the co-ordinated recruitment of scalene and sternomastoid muscles in humans,” J o u r n a lo fP h y s i o l o g y ,
  3. (1998). Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulations to Electropathology,
  4. (1986). Contractile characteristics and operating lengths of canine neck inspiratory muscles,”
  5. (2003). Correlation between active and passive isometric force and intramuscular pressure in the isolated rabbit tibialis anterior muscle,”
  6. (1994). Decreasing stimulation frequency-dependent length-force characteristics of rat muscle,”
  7. (1989). Delayed muscle fiber transformation after foreign-reinnervation of excessive muscle tissue,”
  8. (2006). Designing a bipedicled sternocleidomastoid muscle flap for parotidectomy
  9. (1999). Differences in the profile of unfused tetani of fast motor units with respect to their resistance to fatigue in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle,”
  10. (1985). Dynamic properties of fiber bundles from the rat sternomastoid muscle,”
  11. (2000). Effects of age and gender on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties,”
  12. (2004). Enhancement of twitch force by stretch in a nerve-skeletal muscle preparation of the frog Rana porosa brevipoda and the effects of temperature on it,”
  13. (1994). Experimental comparison of muscle contractility after three methods of reinnervation,”
  14. Experiments in laryngeal reinnervation,”
  15. (1989). Extension of neuromuscular pedicles and direct nerve implants in the rabbit,”
  16. Force—current relationships in intraneuronal stimulation: role of extraneural medium and motor fibre clustering,”MedicalandBiologicalEngineeringandComputing,
  17. (1976). Human laryngeal reinnervation,”
  18. (1988). Immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy in a rabbit model: a functional, histologic, and biochemicalcomparison,”J ournalofH
  19. (2008). Isometric tetanic force measurement method of the tibialis anterior in the rat,”
  20. (1983). K.K.McCullyandJ.A.Faulkner,“Length-tensionrelationship of mamalian diaphragm muscles,”
  21. (1999). Kuzon Jr., “Mechanical function of muscle reinnervated by end-to-side
  22. (2001). Kuzon Jr., “Motion-specific laryngeal reinnervation using muscle-nerve-muscle neurotization,”
  23. (2000). Kuzon Jr., “Skeletal muscle reinnervation by reduced axonal numbers results in whole muscle force deficits,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
  24. (1999). Kuzon Jr., “The effect of reinnervation on force production and power output in skeletal muscle,”
  25. (2002). Kuzon Jr., “The effect of two episodes of denervation and reinnervation on skeletal muscle contractile function,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
  26. (1999). Length dependence of active force production in skeletal muscle,”
  27. (1989). Length-tension relationship of striated muscle of cat external anal sphincter,”
  28. (2004). Length-tension relationship of the feline thyroarytenoid muscle,”
  29. (1976). Mechanics of the canine diaphragm,”
  30. (1998). Muscle fiber type compartmentalization and expression of an immature myosin isoform in the sternocleidomastoid muscle of rabbits and primates,”
  31. (2002). Muscle strength following direct injection of doxorubicin into rabbit sternocleidomastoidmuscleinsitu,”Muscle and
  32. (2004). Muscle-nerve-muscle neurotization for the reinnervation of denervated somatic muscle,”
  33. (1995). Nerve wound healing: an overview,”
  34. (1994). o s t a ,M .V i t t i ,D .T .O l i v e i r a ,a n dR .P .C o s t a ,“ P a r t i c i -pation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on deep inspiration in man. An electromyographic study,”
  35. (2000). Peripheral nerve injuryand repair,”
  36. (1990). Power outputs of slow and fast skeletal muscles of mice,”
  37. (1987). Reinnervation of skeletal muscle: a comparison of nerve implantation with neuromuscular pedicle transfer in an animal model,”
  38. (1979). Reinnervation of the paralyzed larynx: a review,” Head and Neck Surgery,
  39. (1977). Reinnervation of the unilaterally paralyzed larynx,”
  40. (2005). Respiratory action of the intercostal muscles,”
  41. (2003). Respiratory effects of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in humans,”
  42. (2009). Sternocleidomastoid island flap preserving the branch from superior thyroid artery for the reconstruction following resection of oralcancer,”EuropeanJournalofSurgicalOncology,vol.35,no. 9,
  43. (2007). The biphasic forcevelocity relationship in whole rat skeletal muscle in situ,”
  44. (1993). The effects of betaadrenoreceptor activation on contraction in isolated fast- and s l o w - t w i t c hs k e l e t a lm u s c l efi b e r so ft h er a t ,
  45. (1969). The effects of length and stimulus rate on tension in the isometric cat soleus muscle,”
  46. (1998). The force-frequency relationship is altered in regenerating and senescent rat skeletal muscle,”
  47. (1975). The mechanical properties of oesophageal striated muscle in the cat and sheep,”
  48. (1987). The temperature dependence of isometric contractions of single, intact fibres dissected from a mouse foot muscle,” J o u r n a lo fP h y s i o l o g y ,