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Modeling the 4D Study: Statins and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Long-Term Hemodialysis Patients with Diabetes

By Kevin E. Chan, Ravi Thadhani, J. Michael Lazarus and Raymond M. Hakim


Background and objectives: Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for defining causal inferences but are sometimes not feasible because of cost, ethical, or time considerations. We explored the accuracy and potential use of a “simulated trial” through the modeling of a previously published RCT, Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie (4D Study), a landmark study that investigated the cardiovascular benefit of atorvastatin use in 1255 patients with ESRD

Topics: Original Articles
Publisher: American Society of Nephrology
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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