This paper explores the role of control systems in the evolution of critical infrastructure. It explains how control systems co-ordinate the flow of goods, traffic, materials, funds, or information through complex supply, production or distribution systems. The paper examines how they increase productivity by improving the utilisation of installed capacity, creating economies of system that are distinct from the traditional economies of scale, speed and scope. A framework is developed that explains what sectors they are important in, and how innovation in component technologies relates to organisational changes. It is illustrated by case studies of three sectors: elevators, telecommunications and investment banking
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