For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel
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