Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Community Violence and Youth: Affect, Behavior, Substance Use, and Academics

By Michele Cooley-Strickland, Tanya J. Quille, Robert S. Griffin, Elizabeth A. Stuart, Catherine P. Bradshaw and Debra Furr-Holden


Community violence is recognized as a major public health problem (WHO, World Report on Violence and Health,2002) that Americans increasingly understand has adverse implications beyond inner-cities. However, the majority of research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and/or crime-ridden communities while treatment and prevention focuses on the perpetrators of the violence, not on the youth who are its direct or indirect victims. School-based treatment and preventive interventions are needed for children at elevated risk for exposure to community violence. In preparation, a longitudinal, community epidemiological study, The Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence (MORE) Project, is being fielded to address some of the methodological weaknesses presented in previous studies. This study was designed to better understand the impact of children’s chronic exposure to community violence on their emotional, behavioral, substance use, and academic functioning with an overarching goal to identify malleable risk and protective factors which can be targeted in preventive and intervention programs. This paper describes the MORE Project, its conceptual underpinnings, goals, and methodology, as well as implications for treatment and preventive interventions and future research

Topics: Article
Publisher: Springer US
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (Eds.), 150 Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev (2009) 12:127–156 123Youth violence: Scientific approaches to prevention (pp.
  2. (2009). 152 Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev
  3. (2009). 154 Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev
  4. (2009). 156 Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev
  5. (2005). 9). Baltimore streets meaner, but message is mixed.
  6. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence.
  7. (2001). A brief observational measure for urban neighborhoods.
  8. (2002). A cognitive-ecological approach to preventing aggression in urban settings: Initial outcomes for high-risk children.
  9. (1992). A comparison of inner-city and upper-middle class youths’ exposure to violence.
  10. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments.
  11. (1991). A developmental approach to understanding and controlling violence. In
  12. (2001). A meditational model for the impact of exposure to community violence on early child behavior problems.
  13. (2003). A multivariate, multilevel Rasch Model with application to self-reported criminal behavior.
  14. (1999). A preliminary examination of the relationship between exposure to community violence and academic functioning.
  15. (2001). A qualitative investigation of perceptions of violence risk factors in low-income African American children.
  16. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment.
  17. (1985). A social information processing model of social competence in children. In
  18. (1995). Abnormal psychology.
  19. (1991). Activities of the Child and Adolescent Service System Program for improving mental health services for children and families.
  20. (2001). Adaptation of preventive interventions for use in a low-income culturally diverse community.
  21. (1996). Addressing the barriers to mental health services for inner-city children and their caretakers.
  22. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: Commonalities and differences across race/ ethnicity.
  23. (1987). Adolescent coping style and behaviors: Conceptualizations and measurement.
  24. (1993). Adolescent mental health.
  25. (1999). Adolescents’ exposure to community violence: Sleep and psychophysiological functioning.
  26. (1995). Adolescents’ exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma.
  27. (1998). Adverse life events and resilience.
  28. (1996). African-American youth encounters with violence: Results from the Chicago community mental health council violence project.
  29. (1991). Aggression and anxiety: A new look at an old notion.
  30. (2000). Aggression, victimization and problem behavior among inner city minority adolescents.
  31. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis.
  32. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence.
  33. (1997). Alcohol, illicit drugs, and violence. In
  34. (1995). America’s youth in crisis: Challenges and options for programs and policies. Thousand Oaks,
  35. (1998). An attribution retraining program to reduce aggression in elementary school students.
  36. (1978). Antecedents of adolescent initiation into stages of drug use: A developmental analysis.
  37. (1993). Anxiety disorders in African American and White children.
  38. (1988). Anxiety disorders in midadolescence: A community sample.
  39. (1991). Anxiety disorders research with African Americans: Current status.
  40. (2000). Assessing client’s spirituality and religious behavior: Recommendations for research and practice in mental health settings.
  41. (1995). Assessing community violence: The children’s report of exposure to violence (CREV).
  42. (1998). Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth.
  43. (1982). Assessing life events in older children and adolescents: Preliminary findings with the Life Events Checklist. In I. Sarason & C. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety.
  44. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.
  45. (1984). Black adolescents and youth: An endangered species.
  46. (1980). Blood pressure studies in Black and White inner-city and suburban adolescents.
  47. (2008). Briefs and background, drugs and drug abuse, state fact sheets,
  48. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff.
  49. (1993). Bullying at school.
  50. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment.
  51. (1997). Casting the net for ‘‘depression’’ among ethnic minority children from high-risk urban communities.
  52. (1999). Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children during early grade school.
  53. (1990). Childhood rituals: Normal development or obsessive-compulsive symptoms?
  54. (2003). Children exposed to war/terrorism.
  55. (1993). Children in poverty:
  56. (1998). Children of affectively ill parents: A review of the past ten years.
  57. (1990). Children’s exposure to violence and traumatic death.
  58. (1998). Children’s pre-disaster functioning as a predictor of post-traumatic stress following hurricane Andrew: A prospective study.
  59. (1993). Chronic community violence: What is happening to our children?
  60. (1991). Co-victimization of AfricanAmerican children who witness violence: Effects on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development.
  61. (1988). Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders:
  62. (1990). Commentary: Some focus and process considerations regarding effects of parental depression on children.
  63. (1998). Community counseling: Empowerment strategies for a diverse society. Pacific Grove,
  64. (1998). Community violence and child development: A review of research.
  65. (2009). Community violence and youth: Prevalence, affect, and behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication.
  66. (2003). Community violence exposure and children’s academic functioning.
  67. (1997). Community violence: Causes, prevention, and intervention.
  68. (1997). Comparisons of problems reported by parents of children in 12 cultures: Total problems, externalizing, and internalizing.
  69. (1999). Considerations in the use of active and passive parental consent procedures.
  70. (2005). Contextualizing community violence and its effects: An ecological model of parent–child interdependent coping.
  71. (1987). Controlrelated beliefs and depression among clinic-referred children and adolescents.
  72. (1999). Criminal victimization and perceptions of community safety in 12 cities.
  73. (1991). Criminal victimization in the United States,
  74. (2003). Data Collaborative (BCDC).
  75. (2002). Determinants of counseling for children in Manhattan after the September 11 attacks.
  76. (2003). Disentangling the ‘‘whys’’ from the ‘‘what’s’’ of aggressive behaviour.
  77. Dissertation Abstracts International Section Al: Humanities
  78. (1996). Early adolescents exposed to violence: Hope and vulnerability to victimization.
  79. (1991). Effect of first-grade classroom environment on shy behavior, aggressive behavior, and concentration problems.
  80. (1999). Effects of crime and violence in neighborhoods and schools on the school behavior and performance of adolescents.
  81. (2001). Emotional and psychophysiological impact of exposure to community violence in urban adolescents.
  82. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use.
  83. (1995). Exposure to community violence and African American children: A multi-dimensional model.
  84. (1996). Exposure to community violence and the prediction of violent antisocial behavior in a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents (Doctoral dissertation,
  85. (1998). Exposure to pervasive community violence: Contamination of the school environment. In
  86. (1999). Exposure to urban violence: A framework for conceptualizing risky settings. In
  87. (1993). Exposure to violence among inner-city youth.
  88. (1993). Exposure to violence and presence of depression among low-income, African-American youth.
  89. (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among Black adolescents.
  90. (2009). Fam Psychol Rev
  91. (2004). Fam Psychol Rev (2009) 12:127–156 155 123Swanson,
  92. (1994). Fears and anxiety disorders in African American children.
  93. (1987). Fears, phobias and rituals.
  94. (2004). Feasibility of an anxiety preventive intervention for community violence exposed children.
  95. (2006). Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Criminal Justice Information Services Division.
  96. (2002). Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
  97. (2003). First grade child risk behaviors for community violence in middle school.
  98. (2000). GEE with Gaussian estimation of the correlations when data are incomplete.
  99. (1996). Growing up under the gun: Children and adolescents coping with violent neighborhoods.
  100. (1993). Healing words.
  101. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
  102. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threat.
  103. (1999). Identifying adolescents at risk for harddruguse:Racial/ethnic variations.
  104. (2002). Identifying victims of peer aggression: Analysis of cross-informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization.
  105. (1998). Impact of exposure to community violence on anxiety: A longitudinal study of family social support as a protective factor for urban children.
  106. (1997). Impact of exposure to community violence on violent behavior and emotional distress among urban adolescents.
  107. (1996). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood.
  108. (2000). Income, race/ethnicity, and exposure to violenceinyouth:Resultsfromthenationalsurveyofadolescents.
  109. (1998). Increasing access to mental health services for urban children and their caregivers.
  110. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender.
  111. (1998). Introduction: Family and social influences on the development of child competence.
  112. (1987). Is child abuse increasing? Evidence from the National Family Violence Resurvey. Paper presented at the Conference on Child Abuse, American Association for Protecting Children,
  113. (1989). Is violence in Black families increasing? A comparison of
  114. (1960). Learning theory and the symbolic processes.
  115. (1987). Life threat and post-traumatic stress in school-age children.
  116. (1993). Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities. Public Health Reports:
  117. (1995). Major depression in a community sample of African Americans.
  118. (1991). Malignant memories: PTSD in children and adults after a school shooting.
  119. (1970). Manifest fears and worries of ghetto vs. middleclass suburban children.
  120. (1991). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile.
  121. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales.
  122. (1988). Measuring Psychological and Physical Abuse of Children with the Conflict Tactics Scale.
  123. (1998). Measuring violence-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among youth: A compendium of assessment tools.
  124. (1989). Mental health services for children: The state of the art.
  125. (1998). Multiple stressors and social–emotional functioning in African American elementary school children (Doctoral dissertation,
  126. (2007). Neighborhood characteristics, parenting, and children’s safety.
  127. (2005). Neighborhood stigma and the perception of disorder.
  128. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.
  129. (1994). New directions in definitions. In
  130. (1991). No place to be a child: Growing up in a war zone.
  131. (1999). No safe haven II: The effects of violence exposure on urban youth.
  132. (1995). No safe haven: A study of violence exposure in an urban community.
  133. (1993). North and South: A comparative study of African American children’s fears.
  134. (1984). Origins of cigarette smoking in academic achievement, stress and social expectations: Does gender make a difference?
  135. (1998). Other substance use among high school students who use tobacco.
  136. (2003). Out of the darkened room: When a parent is depressed: Protecting the children and strengthening the family.
  137. (1994). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society Convention,
  138. (1995). Parent monitoring and the incidence of drug sampling in urban elementary school children.
  139. (1992). Parental and family predictors of behavior problems in inner-city Black children.
  140. (1996). Patterns of psychopathology among urban poor children: Co-morbidity and aggression effects.
  141. (1994). Post-traumatic stress disorder and violence among inner city high school students. In
  142. (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents exposed to violence.
  143. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms of African-American youth exposed to violence. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Association of Behavior Therapy,
  144. (1991). Poverty and psychiatric status: Longitudinal evidence from the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.
  145. (2000). Preschool children’s exposure to violence: Relation of behavior problems to parent and child reports.
  146. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire.
  147. (1994). Prevention of delinquency: Current status and issues.
  148. (1995). Prior victimization: A risk factor for child sexual abuse and for PTSD-related symptomatology among sexually abused youth.
  149. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health.
  150. (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change.
  151. (1977). Psychiatric disorder: Ecological factors and concepts of causation.
  152. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.
  153. (1997). Recent demographic trends in African American family structure. In
  154. (1986). Relationship of demographic, life-style and stress variables to blood pressure in adolescents.
  155. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective wellbeing.
  156. (1988). Resilient adolescents whose parents have serious affective and other psychiatric disorders: The importance of self-understanding and relationships.
  157. (1998). Review of the child behavior checklist. In
  158. (1995). Review of the social skills rating system. In
  159. (2000). Risk and protective factors influencing adolescent problem behavior: A multivariate latent growth curve analysis.
  160. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample.
  161. (2000). School dropout and injecting drug use in a national sample of White non-Hispanic American adults.
  162. (2006). School-based interventions for children and adolescents exposed to chronic community violence. In
  163. (1977). SCL-90-R: Administration. Scoring and procedures manual.
  164. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers.
  165. (1993). Silent victims: Children who witness violence.
  166. (2004). Social cognition as a mediator of the influence of family and community violence on adolescent development: Implications for intervention.
  167. (1997). Social effectiveness therapy: A therapist’s guide.
  168. (2005). Social information-processing skills training to promote social competence and prevent aggressive behaviors in the third grade.
  169. (1986). Social information-processing variables in the development of aggression and altruism in children. In
  170. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
  171. (1982). Social-cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys.
  172. (2004). Social-cognitive mediators of the relation of environmental and emotion regulation factors to children’s aggression.
  173. (1999). State-trait anger expression inventory-2. Odessa, Fl: Psychological Assessment Resource Inc.
  174. (1997). Staying out of harm’s way: Coping and the development of inner-city children.
  175. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.
  176. (2006). Substance use and community violence: A test of the relation at the daily level.
  177. (1995). Symptom expression and trauma variables in children under 48 months of age.
  178. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods.
  179. (1998). Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: Findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial.
  180. (1990). The Conflict Tactics Scale and its critics: An evaluation and new data on validity and reliability. In
  181. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work.
  182. (2004). The Coping Power program for preadolescent aggressive boys and their parents: Outcome effects at the 1-year follow-up.
  183. (1996). The course of aggression in first-grade children with and without co-morbid anxious symptoms.
  184. (2001). The dropout process in life course perspective: Early risk factors at home and school. Teachers College Record,
  185. (1990). The drug use-delinquency connection in adolescence. In
  186. (1979). The ecology of human development.
  187. (1994). The effects of cumulative violence exposure on children living in urban neighborhoods.
  188. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children.
  189. (1995). The emotional impact of children’s exposure to community violence: A preliminary study.
  190. (1990). The etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.
  191. (1986). The family environment scale: The manual.
  192. (1995). The impact of peer relationships on aggression in childhood: Inhibition through coercion or promotion through peer support. In
  193. (1988). The interrelationship of substance abuse and PTSD: Epidemiological and clinical considerations. In
  194. (2000). The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: II: General psychopathology.
  195. (1999). The multidimensional anxiety scale for children
  196. (2008). The NIfETy method for environmental assessment of neighborhood-level indicators of alcohol and other drug exposure.
  197. (1993). The NIMH community violence project: Children as victims and witnesses to violence.
  198. (1993). The NIMH community violence project: II. Children’s distress symptoms associated with violence exposure.
  199. (1993). The prevalence of depression among low-income African American youth.
  200. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates.
  201. (1998). The relationship between community crime level and the manifestation of anxiety in a referred sample of children (Doctoral dissertation,
  202. (1998). The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among innercity youth.
  203. (1998). The role of social and cognitive processes in children’s adjustment to community violence.
  204. (1997). The role of the family in mediating the effects of community violence on children.
  205. (2000). The SCL-90-R and Brief Symptom Inventory in primary care.
  206. (1999). The stress process and the social distribution of depression.
  207. (1992). Through the looking glass: A model for understanding culturally responsive psychotherapies. In
  208. (2001). Time perspective and earlyonset substance use: A model based on stress-coping theory.
  209. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.
  210. (1995). Traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents.
  211. (1991). Traumatic stress and children.
  212. (1993). Traumatic stress and developmental psychopathology in children and adolescents. In
  213. (1983). Treating children’s fears and phobias: A behavioral approach.
  214. (2000). Trends in inhalant use among high school students in Illinois: 1993–1995.
  215. (2000). Understanding the links among school misbehavior, academic achievement, and cigarette use: A national panel study of adolescents.
  216. (1997). Use of religion by patients with severe medical illness.
  217. (1995). Validation of the Multicultural Events Scale for urban Adolescents (MESA).
  218. (2001). Violence and trauma in the lives of African American children. In
  219. (1992). Violence is a public health problem.
  220. (1990). Violent death and injury in US children and adolescents.
  221. (1993). Violent events reported by normal urban school-aged children: Characteristics and depression correlates.
  222. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Manual.
  223. (2001). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Screener.
  224. (1982). Working with children. In
  225. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.