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Role of Microtubules in Extracellular Release of Poliovirus▿ †

By Matthew P. Taylor, Trever B. Burgon, Karla Kirkegaard and William T. Jackson


Cellular autophagy, a process that directs cytosolic contents to the endosomal and lysosomal pathways via the formation of double-membraned vesicles, is a crucial aspect of innate immunity to many intracellular pathogens. However, evidence is accumulating that certain RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, subvert this pathway to facilitate viral growth. The autophagosome-like membranes induced during infection with wild-type poliovirus were found to be, unlike cellular autophagosomes, relatively immobile. Their mobility increased upon nocodazole treatment, arguing that vesicular tethering is microtubule dependent. In cells infected with a mutant virus that is defective in its interaction with the host cytoskeleton and secretory pathway, vesicle movement increased, indicating reduced tethering. In all cases, the release of tethering correlated with increased amounts of extracellular virus, which is consistent with the hypothesis that small amounts of cytosol and virus entrapped by double-membraned structures could be released via fusion with the plasma membrane. We propose that this extracellular delivery of cytoplasmic contents be termed autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). This pathway could explain the observed exit, in the apparent absence of cellular lysis, of other cytoplasmic macromolecular complexes, including infectious agents and complexes of aggregated proteins

Topics: Virus-Cell Interactions
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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