Learning about the world through our senses constrains our ability to recognise our surroundings. Experience shapes perception. What is the neural basis for object recognition and how are learning-induced changes in recognition manifested in neural populations? We consider first the location of neurons that appear to be critical for object recognition, before describing what is known about their function. Two complementary processes of object recognition are considered: discrimination among diagnostic object features and generalization across non-diagnostic features. Neural plasticity appears to underlie the development of discrimination and generalization for a given set of features, though tracking these changes directly over the course of learning has remained an elusive task
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