Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Nanoparticulate carriers for the treatment of coronary restenosis

By Luis Brito and Mansoor Amiji

Abstract

The current treatment for coronary restenosis following balloon angioplasty involves the use of a mechanical or a drug-eluting stent. Despite the high usage of commercially-available drug-eluting stents in the cardiac field, there are a number of limitations. This review will present the background of restenosis, go briefly into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of restenosis, the use of mechanical stents in coronary restenosis, and will provide an overview of the drugs and genes tested to treat restenosis. The primary focus of this article is to present a comprehensive overview on the use of nanoparticulate delivery systems in the treatment of restenosis both in-vitro and in-vivo. Nanocarriers have been tested in a variety of animal models and in human clinical trials with favorable results. Polymer-based nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles will be discussed, in addition to the findings presented in the field of cardiovascular drug targeting. Nanocarrier-based delivery presents a viable alternative to the current stent based therapies

Topics: Review
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2673979
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Citations

    1. (1995). A gene therapy strategy using a transcription factor decoy of the e2f binding site inhibits smooth muscle proliferation in vivo.
    2. (1996). A new cationic liposome DNA complex enhances the effi ciency of arterial gene transfer in vivo. Hum Gene Ther,
    3. (2006). A novel paclitaxeleluting porous carbon-carbon nanoparticle coated, nonpolymeric cobalt-chromium stent: Evaluation in a porcine model. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions,
    4. (1995). A prescreening system for potential antiproliferative agents: implications for local treatment strategies of postangioplasty restenosis.
    5. (2006). A prospective randomized antiplatelet trial of cilostazol versus clopidogrel in patients with bare metal stent.
    6. (1997). A randomized trial of aspirin versus cilostazol therapy after successful coronary stent implantation.
    7. (2006). Absorbable metal stent in human coronary arteries: imaging with intravascular ultrasound.
    8. (1996). Accelerated restitution of endothelial integrity and endothelium-dependent function after phVEGF165 gene transfer.
    9. (2001). Adenovirus-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Delivery Inhibits Injury-Induced Vascular Neointima Formation.
    10. (1997). Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a dominant-negative h-ras suppresses neointimal formation in balloon-injured arteries in vivo.
    11. (2000). Adventitial versus intimal liposome-mediated ex vivo transfection of canine saphenous vein grafts with endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene.
    12. (2006). Alendronate-loaded nanoparticles deplete monocytes and attenuate restenosis.
    13. (2003). Application of nanoparticle technology for the prevention of restenosis after balloon injury in rats.
    14. (2006). Application to vascular adventitia of a nonviral vector for TIMP-1 gene therapy to prevent intimal hyperplasia. Human Gene Therapy,
    15. (1998). Arterial uptake of biodegradable nanoparticles: Effect of surface modifi cations.
    16. (2006). Biodegradable stents: they do their job and disappear.
    17. (2006). C-type natriuretic peptide for reduction of restenosis:gene transfer is superior over single peptide administration.
    18. (2005). C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits constrictive remodeling without compromising re-endothelialization in balloondilated renal arteries.
    19. (2006). Ca2+, Calmodulin, and cyclins in vascular smooth muscle cell cycle.
    20. (2001). Catalytic oligodeoxynucleotides defi ne a key regulatory role for early growth response factor-1 in the porcine model of coronary in-stent restenosis.
    21. (2004). Catheter-based prostacyclin synthase gene transfer prevents in-stent restenosis in rabbit atheromatous arteries.
    22. (2001). Cell cycle in vasculoproliferative diseases: Potential interventions and routes of delivery.
    23. (1998). Cell cycle progression: new therapeutic target for vascular proliferative disease.
    24. (2005). Cell-specifi c targeting of nanoparticles by multivalent attachment of small molecules.
    25. (2000). Ceramide-coated balloon catheters limit neointimal hyperplasia after stretch injury in carotid arteries.
    26. (2005). Choosing a drug-eluting stent: a comparison between CYPHER and TAXUS. Rev Cardiovasc Med, 6(Suppl 1):S13–21.
    27. (2004). Clathrin-dependent endocytosis.
    28. (1999). Clinical and angiographic follow-up after balloon angioplasty with provisional stenting for coronary in-stent restenosis. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions,
    29. (1991). Clinical experience with the Palmaz-Schatz coronary stent. Initial results of a multicenter study.
    30. (2001). Comparison of coronary-artery bypass surgery and stenting for the treatment of multivessel disease.
    31. (2005). Coronary stenting and infl ammation.
    32. (1998). Coronary-artery stents—gauging, gorging, and gouging.
    33. (1995). Cytostatic gene therapy for vascular proliferative disorders with a constitutively active form of the retinoblastoma gene product.
    34. (2002). Deposition of nanoparticles in the arterial vessel by porous balloon catheters: Localization by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
    35. (2006). Design of a novel fi bronectin-mimetic peptide-amphiphile for functionalized biomaterials.
    36. (2002). Dissecting virus entry via endocytosis.
    37. (1997). Downregulation of cyclindependent kinase 2 activity and cyclin a promoter activity in vascular smooth muscle cells by p27KIP1, an inhibitor of neointima formation in the rat carotid artery.
    38. (2004). Drug-Eluting Bioabsorbable magnesium stent.
    39. (2004). Drug-eluting stents: caution and concerns for long-term outcome.
    40. (1997). Effect of cilostazol in preventing restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
    41. (1996). Effect of cilostazol, a novel anti-platelet drug, on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
    42. (2000). Effect of percutaneous adenovirus-mediated Gax gene delivery to the arterial wall in double-injured atheromatous stented rabbit iliac arteries. Gene Therapy,
    43. (2004). Effects of different application parameters on penetration characteristics and arterial vessel wall integrity after local nanoparticle delivery using a porous balloon catheter.
    44. (2005). Effects of vaccinia virus anti-infl ammatory protein 35K and TIMP-1 gene transfers on vein graft stenosis in rabbits.
    45. (2002). Effi ciency of Dispatch® and Infi ltrator® Cardiac Infusion Catheters in Arterial Localization of Nanoparticles in a Porcine Coronary Model of Restenosis.
    46. (1998). Effi cient inhibition of intimal hyperplasia by adenovirus-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfer to rats and pigs in vivo.
    47. (2002). Endocytosis via caveolae.
    48. (2006). Endothelial targeting of high-affi nity multivalent polymer nanocarriers directed to intercellular adhesion molecule 1.
    49. (2005). Endothelialization of microporous YIGSR/PEGmodifi ed polyurethaneurea. Tissue Engineering,
    50. (2006). Engineered polymeric nanoparticles for receptor-targeted blockage of oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake and atherogenesis in macrophages.
    51. (2004). Enhanced inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia by genetically engineered endothelial progenitor cells.
    52. (1994). Evidence for direct local effect of angiotensin in vascular hypertrophy. In vivo gene transfer of angiotensin converting enzyme.
    53. (2006). Experimental study of recombinant eukaryotic expression vector of human eNOS in ECV304. Swiss Med Wkly,
    54. (2000). Expression of wild-type and noncleavable fas ligand by tetracycline-regulated adenoviral vectors to limit intimal hyperplasia in vascular lesions. Human Gene Therapy,
    55. (2004). Extracellular matrix changes in stented human coronary arteries.
    56. (2006). Extracellular superoxide dismutase with vaccinia virus anti-infl ammatory protein 35K or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1: Combination gene therapy in the treatment of vein graft stenosis in rabbits.
    57. (2001). Formulation and delivery mode affect disposition and activity of tyrphostin-loaded nanoparticles in the rat carotid model.
    58. (2005). Frequency, predictors, and outcomes of drug-eluting stent utilization in patients with high-risk Non-ST-Segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
    59. (2000). Gene therapy for attenuating cardiac allograft arteriopathy using ex vivo E2F Decoy transfection by HVJ-AVE-Liposome method in mice and nonhuman primates.
    60. Gene therapy for in-stent restenosis. polymeric gene delivery: principles and applications. M Amiji.
    61. (2002). Gene therapy for restenosis: current status.
    62. (1994). Gene therapy for vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation after arterial injury.
    63. (1995). Gene therapy inhibiting neointimal vascular lesion: in vivo transfer of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase gene.
    64. (2000). Gene therapy of transplant arteriopathy by liposome-mediated transfection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
    65. (1999). Gene transfer of human prostacyclin synthase prevents neointimal formation after carotid balloon injury in rats editorial
    66. (2001). How a dentist’s name became a synonym for a life-saving device: the story of Dr. Charles Stent.
    67. (1998). Human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transfer inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation after balloon injury in rats.
    68. (2007). Improved targeting of the αvβ 3 integrin by multimerisation of RGD peptides.
    69. (2006). In vivo phage display selection yields atherosclerotic plaque targeted peptides for imaging. Molecular Imaging and
    70. (1994). In vivo suppression of injury-induced vascular smooth muscle cell accumulation using adenovirus-mediated transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene.
    71. (1998). In-stent restenosis: contributions of infl ammatory responses and arterial injury to neointimal hyperplasia.
    72. (2006). Inactivation of vascular smooth muscle cells photosensitised by liposome-delivered Zn(II)-phthalocyanine.
    73. (2002). Infl ammation and restenosis in the stent era.
    74. (1997). Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia by gene transfer of beta-interferon.
    75. (1997). Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal accumulation by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of cytosine deaminase.
    76. (1997). Inhibitory role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in arterial wound healing and neointima formation : A gene targeting and gene transfer study in mice.
    77. (2000). Initial and 6-Month Results of Biodegradable poly-l-lactic acid coronary stents in humans.
    78. (2003). Intracoronary stenting and angiographic results: strut thickness effect on restenosis outcome (ISARSTEREO-2) trial.
    79. (2000). Intravascular adenovirus-mediated vegf-c gene transfer reduces neointima formation in balloon-denuded rabbit aorta.
    80. (2006). Lipoplex gene transfer of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits the reactive intimal hyperplasia after expanded polytetrafl uoroethylene bypass grafting.
    81. (2001). Liposome-mediated gene transfection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase reduces endothelial activation and leukocyte infi ltration in transplanted hearts.
    82. (1996). Local adenoviral-mediated expression of recombinant hirudin reduces neointima formation after arterial injury.
    83. (2003). Local adenoviral-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfer inhibits neointimal formation in the porcine coronary stented model.
    84. (1998). Local adenovirus-mediated transfer of human endothelial nitric oxide synthase reduces luminal narrowing after coronary angioplasty in pigs.
    85. (1995). Local delivery of biodegradable microparticles containing colchicine or a colchicine analogue: Effects on restenosis and implications for catheter-based drug delivery.
    86. (2005). Local gene transduction of cyclooxygenase-1 increases blood fl ow in injured atherosclerotic rabbit arteries.
    87. (2001). Local gene transfer of tissue factor pathway inhibitor regulates intimal hyperplasia in atherosclerotic arteries.
    88. (2004). Local RAD50 gene delivery induces regression of preformed porcine coronary in-stent neointimal hyperplasia.
    89. (2005). Locally delivered nanoencapsulated tyrphostin (AGL-2043) reduces neointima formation in ballooninjured rat carotid and stented porcine coronary arteries.
    90. (2002). Macrophage depletion by clodronate-containing liposomes reduces neointimal formation after balloon injury in rats and rabbits.
    91. (2003). Mechanisms of restenosis after coronary intervention: difference between plain old balloon angioplasty and stenting.
    92. (2005). Molecular basis of restenosis and drug-eluting stents.
    93. (2002). Morphological predictors of restenosis after coronary stenting in humans.
    94. (2000). Nanoparticulate delivery system of a tyrphostin for the treatment of restenosis.
    95. (2006). Narrative review: Drug-eluting stents for the management of restenosis: a critical appraisal of the evidence.
    96. (2000). Neutrophil, not macrophage, infi ltration precedes neointimal thickening in balloon-injured arteries.
    97. (1995). Nitric oxide (NO) donor molecules: effect of NO release rate on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro.
    98. (1995). Nitric oxide decreases cytokine-induced endothelial activation. Nitric oxide selectively reduces endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and proinfl ammatory cytokines.
    99. (2002). Novel PDGFbetaR antisense encapsulated in polymeric nanospheres for the treatment of restenosis.
    100. (2000). Optimization of nonviral gene transfer of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. Molecular Therapy,1(4):366–375.
    101. (2002). Overexpression of a constitutively active protein kinase g mutant reduces neointima formation and in-stent restenosis.
    102. (1998). Overexpression of human endothelial nitric oxide synthase in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and in balloon-injured carotid artery.
    103. (2001). p27-p16 Fusion gene inhibits angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia and coronary artery occlusion.
    104. (1999). P53 gene transfer to the injured rat carotid artery promotes apoptosis.
    105. (1997). Paclitaxel inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo using local drug delivery.
    106. (2005). Paclitaxel-eluting stents in coronary artery disease.
    107. (2005). Particle debris from a nanoporous stent coating obscures potential antiproliferative effects of tacrolimus-eluting stents in a porcine model of restenosis.
    108. (1997). Passivation of metallic stents after arterial gene transfer of phVEGF165 inhibits thrombus formation and intimal thickening.
    109. (1996). Patterns and mechanisms of in-stent restenosis. A serial intravascular ultrasound study.
    110. (2005). PDGF receptor kinase inhibitors for the treatment of restenosis.
    111. (1998). PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase blocker AG1295 selectively attenuates smooth muscle cell growth in vitro and reduces neointimal formation after balloon angioplasty in swine.
    112. (2002). Peptide-retargeted adenovirus encoding a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 decreases restenosis after intravascular gene transfer.
    113. (1997). Percutaneous delivery of the gax gene inhibits vessel stenosis in a rabbit model of balloon angioplasty.
    114. (2004). Perspective in progress of cardiovascular gene therapy.
    115. (2004). Physical characterization of controlled release of paclitaxel from the TAXUS Express2 drug-eluting stent.
    116. (2003). Preclinical evaluation of inducible nitric oxide synthase lipoplex gene therapy for inhibition of stent-induced vascular neointimal lesion formation. Human Gene Therapy,
    117. (2001). Predictors of diffuse and aggressive intra-stent restenosis.
    118. (1997). Prostacyclin and nitric oxide-related gene transfer in preventing arterial thrombosis and restenosis. Agents Actions Suppl,
    119. (1995). Rapamycin-FKBP inhibits cell cycle regulators of proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.
    120. (1988). Receptor-mediated gene delivery and expression in vivo.
    121. (1996). Regulation of cellular proliferation and intimal formation following balloon injury in atherosclerotic rabbit arteries.
    122. (2001). Restenosis after coronary placement of various stent types.
    123. (2006). Restenosis following implantation of bare metal coronary stents: Pathophysiology and pathways involved in the vascular response to injury. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews,
    124. (2006). Review of randomized clinical trials of drug-eluting stents for the prevention of in-stent restenosis.
    125. (2001). Selective augmentation of prostacyclin production by combined prostacyclin synthase and cyclooxygenase-1 gene transfer.
    126. (1996). Significance of elevated cytochrome aa3 in a state of endotoxemia in dogs.
    127. (2004). Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent.
    128. (2003). Sirolimus-eluting stent for treatment of complex in-stent restenosis: The fi rst clinical experience.
    129. (2005). Site specifi c gene delivery in the cardiovascular system.
    130. (2004). Stabilized nonviral formulations for the delivery of MCP-1 gene into cells of the vasculoendothelial system.
    131. (2006). Summary health statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey,
    132. (1997). Sustained local drug delivery to the arterial wall via biodegradable microspheres. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis,
    133. (2002). Sustained reduction of in-stent neointimal growth with the use of a novel systemic nanoparticle paclitaxel.
    134. (2003). Synergistic effects of a novel nanoporous stent coating and tacrolimus on intima proliferation in rabbits. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions,
    135. (2003). Systemic depletion of macrophages by liposomal bisphosphonates reduces neointimal formation following balloon-injury in the rat carotid artery.
    136. (2002). Systemic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene delivery reduces neointimal hyperplasia in ballooninjured rat carotid artery.
    137. (2002). Targeted antiproliferative drug delivery to vascular smooth muscle cells with a magnetic resonance imaging nanoparticle contrast agent: Implications for rational therapy of restenosis.
    138. (2002). Targeting CCR2 or CD18 inhibits experimental in-stent restenosis in primates: Inhibitory potential depends on type of injury and leukocytes targeted.
    139. (2003). Targeting the cell cycle machinery for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
    140. (1995). Taxol inhibits neointimal smooth muscle cell accumulation after angioplasty in the rat.
    141. (1997). The dispatchTM catheter as a delivery tool for arterial gene transfer.
    142. (2005). The effi cacy of sirolimusand paclitaxel-eluting stents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    143. (2001). The endocytic pathway: a mosaic of domains.
    144. (1993). The in-vitro effect of antineoplastic agents on proliferative activity and cytoskeletal components of plaque-derived smooth-muscle cells from human coronary arteries.
    145. (1997). The molecular bases of restenosis.
    146. (1993). The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s.
    147. (2002). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene delivery using HVJ-AVE liposomes markedly reduces restenosis in atherosclerotic arteries.
    148. (2005). Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 adenoviral gene therapy alone is equally effective in reducing restenosis as combination gene therapy in a rabbit restenosis model.
    149. (2001). Tissue-specifi c expression of an anti-proliferative hybrid transgene from the human smooth muscle alpha-actin promoter suppresses smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation.
    150. (1998). Transfer of wild-type p53 gene effectively inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
    151. (2006). Treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis with a paclitaxel-coated balloon catheter.
    152. (1997). VEGF gene transfer reduces intimal thickening via increased production of nitric oxide in carotid arteries.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.