Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea

By Andreas C. Bryhn

Abstract

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2673029
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Citations

    1. (2009). A new general approach to quantify nitrogen fixation exemplified for the Baltic Proper.
    2. (2009). Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus.
    3. (2003). Cost effective water protection in the Gulf of Finland. Focus on St.
    4. (2008). Costs and benefits from nutrient reductions to the Baltic Sea. Report 5877. Stockholm: Swedish EPA.
    5. (2006). Detergent phosphates: an EU policy assessment.
    6. (2007). Economic analysis of the BSAP with focus on eutrophication.
    7. eds (2007) Searching efficient protection strategies for the eutrophied Gulf of Finland: the integrated use of experimental and modelling tools. The Finnish Environment 15. Helsinki: SYKE. 90 p. (electronic version available).
    8. (1985). Eutrophication and the Baltic Sea: causes and consequences.
    9. (2008). Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.
    10. (2008). Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: Results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment.
    11. (2006). Eutrophication of Swedish seas.
    12. (2008). Ingen o ¨vergo ¨dning (No over-enrichment), revised version. Report 5840. Stockholm: Swedish EPA. 123 p. (electronic version available).
    13. (2007). Internal ecosystem feedbacks enhance nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria blooms and complicate management in the Baltic Sea.
    14. (2001). International versus national actions against nitrogen pollution of the Baltic Sea.
    15. (1999). Managing nutrient fluxes and pollution in the Baltic: an interdisciplinary simulation study.
    16. (2005). Modeling the impact of potential wetlands on phosphorus retention in a Swedish catchment.
    17. (2006). Modelling costefficient reductions of nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea.
    18. (2008). Modelling of phosphorus inputs to rivers from diffuse and point sources.
    19. (2008). The Baltic Sea a century ago - a reconstruction from model simulations, verified by observations.
    20. (2005). The trophic state of the Baltic Sea a century ago: a model simulation study.
    21. (1999). Tonderski A
    22. (2007). Towards a Baltic Sea unaffected by eutrophication. Helsinki: Helcom. 35 p. (electronic version available).
    23. (2002). Transparency of the North Sea and Baltic Sea – a Secchi depth data mining study.
    24. (2007). Ule ´n B
    25. (2001). Wallstro ¨m K

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.