Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Changes in Metallothionein Level in Rat Hepatic Tissue after Administration of Natural Mouldy Wheat

By Anna Vasatkova, Sarka Krizova, Vojtech Adam, Ladislav Zeman and Rene Kizek

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. This work was aimed at investigation of influence of mouldy wheat contaminated by pathogenic fungi producing mycotoxins on metallothionein levels in hepatic tissue of rats. The rats were administrating feed mixtures with different contents of vitamins or naturally mouldy wheat for 28 days. It was found that the wheat contained deoxynivalenol (80 ± 5 μg per kg of mouldy wheat), zearalenone (56 ± 3 μg/kg), T2-toxin (20 ± 2 μg/kg) and aflatoxins as a sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 (3.9 ± 0.2 μg/kg). Rats were fed diets containing 0, 33, 66 and 100% naturally moulded wheat. Control group 0, 33, 66 and 100% contained vitamins according to Nutrient Requirements of Rats (NRC). Other four groups (control group with vitamins, vit33, vit66 and vit100%) were fed on the same levels of mouldy wheat, also vitamins at levels 100% higher than the previous mixtures. We determined weight, feed conversion and performed dissection to observe pathological processes. Changes between control group and experimental groups exposed to influence of mouldy wheat and experimental groups supplemented by higher concentration of vitamins and mouldy wheat were not observed. Livers were sampled and did not demonstrate significant changes in morphology compared to control either. In the following experiments the levels of metallothionein as a marker of oxidative stress was determined. We observed a quite surprising trend in metallothionein levels in animals supplemented with increased concentration of vitamins. Its level enhanced with increasing content of mouldy wheat. It was possible to determine a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) between control group and groups of animals fed with 33, 66 and 100% mouldy wheat. It is likely that some mycotoxins presented in mouldy wheat are able to block the mechanism of metallothionein synthesis

Topics: Article
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2672023
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Citations

    1. (2009). 10 Reduction in antioxidant defenses may contribute to ochratoxin a toxicity and carcinogenicity.
    2. (2008). A determination of metallothionein in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius) using Brdicka reaction. Sensors
    3. A nutritional approach for the management of deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract of growing chickens.
    4. Aflatoxin B-1 degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other microbes selected using coumarin medium.
    5. (2008). An electrochemical detection of metallothioneins at the zeptomole level in nanolitre volumes. Sensors
    6. (2007). An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Anim. Feed Sci.
    7. (2009). An overview of conventional and emerging analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins.
    8. Analysis of mechanisms of T-2 toxin toxicity using yeast DNA microarrays.
    9. (2001). Analysis of metallothioneins by the modified Brdicka procedure. Talanta
    10. Antibody-mediated prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins in the field.
    11. (2004). Antioxidants in blood from sheep lines divergently selected for facial eczema resistance.
    12. (2008). Application of the Brdicka reaction in determination of metallothionein in patients with tumours.
    13. Are the genes nadA and norB involved in formation of aflatoxin G1?
    14. Aspergillus parasiticus crzA, which encodes calcineurin response zinc-finger protein, is required for aflatoxin production under calcium stress.
    15. (2006). Attomole voltammetric determination of metallothionein.
    16. Binding of ochratoxin a to a urinary globulin: A new concept to account for gender difference in rat nephrocarcinogenic responses.
    17. (2002). Catalytic signal of rabbit liver metallothionein on a mercury electrode: a combination of derivative chronopotentiometry with adsorptive transfer stripping. Bioelectrochemistry
    18. (2005). Chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis in poultry by dietary butylated hydroxytoluene. Anim. Feed Sci.
    19. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds.
    20. Complex etiology, prophylaxis and hygiene control in mycotoxic nephropathies in farm animals and humans.
    21. (2008). Cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in kidney cells exposed to the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and citrinin: Individual and combined effects.
    22. (2009). Determination of aflatoxins in peanut products in the northeast region of Sao
    23. (2001). Determination of metallothionein at the femtomole level by constant current stripping chronopotentiometry.
    24. Development of a generic PCR detection of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol- and nivalenolchemotypes of Fusarium graminearum clade.
    25. (2008). Developmental toxicity of ochratoxin A in rat embryo midbrain micromass cultures.
    26. (1996). Distribution and induction of aflatoxin B-1-9a-hydroxylase activity in rat liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells.
    27. (2008). Effect of ochratoxin A on redox-regulated transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase in cultured kidney tubulus cells. Food Chem. Toxicol.
    28. (2008). Effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on oxidative stress and blood phagocytic activity in broilers.
    29. (2007). Effects of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins with and without a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent on body weight, feed intake, serum chemistry, and nutrient digestibility of mature beagles.
    30. (2005). Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, metabolism, and indices of athletic performance of exercised horses'.
    31. (2007). Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology and blood chemistry of turkeys.
    32. (1995). Effects of feeding T2 toxin and deoxynivalenol on DNA and GSH contents of brain and spleen of rats supplemented with vitamin-E and vitamin-C and selenium combination.
    33. (2007). Effects of Fusarium toxins on growth, humoral immune response and internal organs in weaner pigs, and the efficacy of apple pomace as an antidote.
    34. (2008). Effects of milling and cooking processes on the deoxynivalenol content in wheat.
    35. (2008). Effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium on gastric fundus in cadmium toxicity in male rats.
    36. (2008). Employment of electrochemical techniques for metallothionein determination in tumor cell lines and patients with a tumor disease. Electroanalysis
    37. (2008). Environmental exposure to estrogenic and other myco- and phytotoxins. Chimia
    38. (2008). Evidence for mycotoxin contamination of maize in Southern Ethiopia: The need for further multidisciplinary research. Cereal Res. Commun.
    39. (2007). Fumonisin B-2 production by Aspergillus
    40. (2008). Fusarium populations on chinese barley show a dramatic gradient in mycotoxin profiles. Phytopathology
    41. (2006). Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and ochratoxin A toxicity in primary human urothelial cells. Toxicology
    42. (1998). Glutathione Stransferase-placental form expression and proliferation of hepatocytes in fumonisin B-1-treated male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett.
    43. Growth and mycotoxin production by chaetomium globosum is favored in a neutral pH.
    44. (1992). Hepatic accumulation and hepatotoxicity of luteoskyrin in mice.
    45. (2009). Identification of select fumonisin forming Fusarium species using PCR applications of the polyketide synthase gene and its relationship to fumonisin production in vitro.
    46. (2008). Impact of deoxynivalenol on the intestinal microflora of pigs.
    47. (2007). Induction of oxidative stress response by the mycotoxin patulin in mammalian cells.
    48. (2008). Influence of cadmium(II) ions and brewery sludge on metallothionein level in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) – Bio-transforming of toxic wastes. Sensors
    49. Inhibition of citrinin production in Penicillium citrinum cultures by neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)].
    50. (1994). Interaction of selenium and arsenic with metallothionein: Effect of vitamin B12.
    51. Interaction of wild strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 on aflatoxins production.
    52. (2008). Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a synbiotic containing enterococcus faecium and oligosaccharides.
    53. (1989). Intestinal-absorption and excretion of aflatoxin in rats.
    54. (2008). Inula crithmoides extract protects against ochratoxin A-induced oxidative stress, clastogenic and mutagenic alterations in male rats. Toxicon
    55. (2009). Investigation on the protective effect of alfa-mannan against the DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B1 in mouse hepatocytes.
    56. (1990). Invitro prostaglandin-H synthase-mediated and monooxygenase-mediated binding of aflatoxin-B1 to DNA in guinea-pig tissue microsomes. Carcinogenesis
    57. Isolation and identification of a strain of Aspergillus tubingensis with deoxynivalenol biotransformation capability.
    58. (1996). Liver Dis.
    59. Metallothionein expression in animals: A physiological perspective on function.
    60. (2008). Metallothionein levels in sperm of various fish species.
    61. (2007). Multi-instrumental investigation of affecting of early somatic embryos of Spruce by cadmium(II) and lead(II) ions. Sensors
    62. (2009). Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed.
    63. Mycotoxin detection plays &quot;cops and robbers&quot;: Cyclodextrin chemosensors as specialized police?
    64. (2007). Mycotoxin fumonisin B-1 alters cellular redox balance and signalling pathways in rat liver and kidney. Toxicology
    65. (2008). Mycotoxin problem in Africa: Current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.
    66. (2008). Mycotoxin research and mycoflora in some commercially important agricultural commodities. Crop Prot.
    67. (2008). Mycotoxins in the food chain: Appearance of the toxins in sheep milk and milk products. Cereal Res. Commun.
    68. (2009). Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products in southern Italy.
    69. (2008). Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in maize and wheat
    70. (2009). Ochratoxin A decontamination: A review. Food Control
    71. (2005). Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells. Toxicology
    72. (2008). On the effects of the concentrate proportion of dairy cow rations in the presence and absence of a Fusarium toxincontaminated triticale on cow performance.
    73. (2008). Patulin influences the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells through depletion of intracellular glutathione.
    74. (2005). Patulin reduces glutathione level and enzyme activities in rat liver slices.
    75. (2007). PCR-based diagnosis and quantification of mycotoxin producing fungi.
    76. (2007). Possibilities of electrochemical techniques in metallothionein and lead detection in fish tissues.
    77. (1974). Prevention by metallothionein of cadmium induced inhibition of vitamin D activation reaction in kidney. FEBS Lett.
    78. (2003). Prevention of patulin toxicity on rumen microbial fermentation by SH-containing reducing agents.
    79. (2002). Recent studies on metallothionein: Protection against toxicity of heavy metals and oxygen free radicals. Tohoku
    80. (2008). Reduction of ochratoxin A levels in red wine by bentonite, modified bentonites, and
    81. (1987). Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by 1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in cultured cells and in mice.
    82. (2000). regulation, degradation, and biological significance of mammalian metallothioneins.
    83. (2008). Satratoxin H generates reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in PC12 cells.
    84. (2008). Serum electrolyte changes in Penicillic acid toxicosis. Indian Vet.
    85. (2008). Species-specific fungal DNA in airborne dust as surrogate for occupational mycotoxin exposure?
    86. Survey of slaughtered pigs for occurrence of ochratoxin A and porcine nephropathy in Serbia.
    87. (2008). T-2 toxin-induced toxicity in pregnant mice and rats.
    88. (1974). The isolation of metallothionein and its protective role in cadmium poisoning.
    89. (2008). The mycotoxic risk: danger and health impact in animal production.
    90. (1989). The role of gut microorganisms in the metabolism of deoxynivalenol administered to rats. Xenobiotica
    91. (2002). The role of oxidative stress in the ochratoxin A-mediated toxicity in proximal tubular cells.
    92. (2007). The role of oxidative stress in zearalenone-mediated toxicity in Hep G2 cells: Oxidative DNA damage, gluthatione depletion and stress proteins induction. Toxicology
    93. The use of isolated human lymphocytes in mycotoxin cytotoxicity testing.
    94. (2008). The wheat response to deoxynivalenol: does maintenance of hormone homeostasis and alleviation of oxidative stress play an important role in toxin tolerance? Cereal Res. Commun.
    95. (1990). Toxicity of cadmium to rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8): Protective effect of 1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
    96. (2008). trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals.
    97. (2009). Trichothecenes in cereal grains.
    98. Upscaled CTAB-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in plant material with reduced sampling error.
    99. (2008). Use of antioxidants in amelioration of mycotoxin toxicity: A review.
    100. (2007). Utilizing a chronopotentiometric sensor technique for metallothionein determination in fish tissues and their host parasites. Sens. Actuators B
    101. (2008). Utilizing of adsorptive transfer stripping technique Brdicka reaction for determination of metallothioneins level in melanoma cells, blood serum and tissues. Sensors
    102. (2007). Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients. Anim. Feed Sci.
    103. (2008). Zearalenone and reproductive function in farm animals.
    104. (1997). Zinc status in vitamin B6 deficiency.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.