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Nitric oxide modulates dynamic actin cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking in a cell type-specific manner in root apices

By Anna Kasprowicz, Agnieszka Szuba, Dieter Volkmann, František Baluška and Przemysław Wojtaszek


NO is an important regulatory molecule in eukaryotes. Much of its effect is ascribed to the action of NO as a signalling molecule. However, NO can also directly modify proteins thus affecting their activities. Although the signalling functions of NO are relatively well recognized in plants, very little is known about its potential influence on the structural integrity of plant cells. In this study, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and the recycling of wall polysaccharides in plants via the endocytic pathway in the presence of NO or NO-modulating substances were analysed. The actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis in maize (Zea mays) root apices were visualized with fluorescence immunocytochemistry. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton is modulated via NO levels and the extent of such modulation is cell-type specific. In endodermis cells, actin cables change their orientation from longitudinal to oblique and cellular cross-wall domains become actin-depleted/depolymerized. The reaction is reversible and depends on the type of NO donor. Actin-dependent vesicle trafficking is also affected. This was demonstrated through the analysis of recycled wall material transported to newly-formed cell plates and BFA compartments. Therefore, it is concluded that, in plant cells, NO affects the functioning of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-dependent processes. Mechanisms for the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton are cell-type specific, and such rearrangements might selectively impinge on the functioning of various cellular domains. Thus, the dynamic actin cytoskeleton could be considered as a downstream effector of NO signalling in cells of root apices

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Publisher: Oxford University Press
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