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Protease inhibitors used in the treatment of HIV+ induce β-cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and compromise insulin secretion

By Sheng Zhang, Michael J. Carper, Xiaoyong Lei, W. Todd Cade, Kevin E. Yarasheski and Sasanka Ramanadham


Inclusion of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) in the treatment of people living with HIV+ has markedly decreased mortality but also increased the incidence of metabolic abnormalities, causes of which are not well understood. Here, we report that insulinopenia is exacerbated when Zucker fa/fa rats are exposed to a PI for 7 wk, suggesting that chronic PI exposure adversely affects pancreatic islet β-cell function. In support of this possibility, we find increased apoptosis, as reflected by TUNEL fluorescence analyses, and reduced insulin-secretory capacity in insulinoma cells and human pancreatic islet cells after in vitro exposures (48–96 h) to clinically relevant PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, or tipranavir). Furthermore, pancreatic islets isolated from rats administered an HIV-PI for 3 wk exhibit greater cell death than islets isolated from vehicle-administered rats. The higher incidence of HIV-PI-induced cell death was associated with cleavage and, hence, activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase but not with activation of phospho-pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase or induction of ER stress apoptotic factor C/EBP homologous protein. Exposure to the HIV-PIs, however, led to activation of mitochondria-associated caspase-9, caused a loss in mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted the release of cytochrome c, suggesting that HIV-PIs currently in clinically use can induce β-cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These findings therefore highlight the importance of considering β-cell viability and function when assessing loss of glycemic control and the course of development of diabetes in HIV+ subjects receiving a protease inhibitor

Topics: Articles
Publisher: American Physiological Society
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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