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Rapid Identification of the Hepatic Cytochrome P450 2C19 Activity Using a Novel and Noninvasive [13C]Pantoprazole Breath Test

By Zeruesenay Desta, Anil Modak, Phuong D. Nguyen, Suzanne M. Lemler, Yasuhisa Kurogi, Lang Li and David A. Flockhart

Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that the stable isotope [13C]pantoprazole is O-demethylated by cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 and that the 13CO2 produced and exhaled in breath as a result can serve as a safe, rapid, and noninvasive phenotyping marker of CYP2C19 activity in vivo. Healthy volunteers who had been genotyped for the CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and CYP2C19*17 alleles were administered a single oral dose of [13C]pantoprazole sodium-sesquihydrate (100 mg) with 2.1 g of sodium bicarbonate. Exhaled 13CO2 and 12CO2 were measured by IR spectroscopy before (baseline) and 2.5 to 120 min after dosing. Ratios of 13CO2/12CO2 after [13C]pantoprazole relative to 13CO2/12CO2 at baseline were expressed as change over baseline (DOB). Maximal DOB, DOB15 to DOB120, and area under the DOB versus time curve (AUC0–120 and AUC0–∞) were significantly different among three genotype groups (CYP2C19*1/*1, n = 10; CYP2C19*1/*2 or CYP2C19*1/*3, n = 10; and CYP2C19*2/*2, n = 5) with predicted extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2C19, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.01); linear regression analysis indicated a gene-dose effect relationship (r2 ranged between 0.236 and 0.522; all p < 0.05). These breath test indices were significantly lower in PMs than IMs (p < 0.05) or EMs (p < 0.01) of CYP2C19. [13C]Pantoprazole plasma exposure showed significant inverse correlation with breath test indices in the respective subjects (Pearson r = -0.74; p = 0.038). These feasibility data suggest that the [13C]pantoprazole breath test is a reliable, rapid, and noninvasive probe of CYP2C19 and seems to be a useful tool to optimize drug therapy metabolized by CYP2C19

Topics: Metabolism, Transport, and Pharmacogenomics
Publisher: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2670589
Provided by: PubMed Central
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