Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Avian influenza virus (H5N1); effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival

By Muhammad Akbar Shahid, Muhammad Abubakar, Sajid Hameed and Shamsul Hassan


Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (local strain) virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light) and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda) agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF) from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg) was subjected to haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56°C, after 1 day at 28°C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4°C. Acidic pH (1, 3) and basic pH (11, 13) were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h), 7 and 9 (more than 24 h). UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy®), detergent (surf excel®) and alkali (caustic soda) destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak

Topics: Research
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (1938). A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints.
  2. (1999). Alexander DJ: Avian influenza A subtype H9N2 in poultry in Pakistan. Vet Rec
  3. (1995). An outbreak of avian influenza in poultry in Pakistan. Vet Rec
  4. (2005). Ausvetplan: Australian Veterinary Emergency Manual Plan Avian Influenza – Updated Interim Draft (1,891), 3rd edn,
  5. (2007). Avian influenza in Pakistan: outbreaks of low- and high-pathogenicity avian influenza in Pakistan during 2003–2006. Avian Dis
  6. (2006). Avian influenza viruses and human health. Volume 124. Edited by: Schudel A, Lombard M. Developments in Biologicals Karger,
  7. (2006). Chaichoune K: The effect of temperature and UV light on infectivity of avian influenza virus (H5N1, Thai field strain) in chicken fecal manure. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
  8. (1995). Chemicals used as disinfectants: active ingredients and enhancing additives. Rev Sci Tech
  9. (1990). Conformational changes and fusion activity of influenza virus haemagglutinin of the H2 and H3 subtypes: effects of acid pretreatment.
  10. (1998). Cox NJ: Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science
  11. (1984). DC: Laboratory studies with Pennsylvania avian influenza viruses (H5N2).
  12. (2007). DE: Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water. Avian Dis
  13. (2001). DL: Avian influenza in Europe, Asia and Central America during
  14. (2001). Effect of physico-chemical factors on survival of avian influenza virus (H7N3 type).
  15. (2003). Erickson G: Characterization of a swinelike reassortant H1N2 influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in the United States. Virus Res
  16. (1991). Evaluation of different methods of inactivation of Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus in egg fluids and serum. Avian Dis
  17. (1975). Hallum JV: Comparison of RNA polymerase Associated with Newcastle Disease Virus and a TemperatureSensitive Mutant of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Persistently Infected L Cells. J Virol
  18. (1982). Helenius A: Membrane fusion activity of influenza virus.
  19. (2002). Measuring pKa of activation and pKi of inactivation for hemagglutinin from kinetics of membrane fusion of virions and of HA expressing cells.
  20. (2006). Meemak N: Survival and stability of HPAI H5N1 in different environments and susceptibility to disinfectants. Volume 124. Edited by: Schudel A, Lombard M. Developments in Biologicals,
  21. (2006). Micro-assay for measuring thermal inactivation of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in naturally infected chicken meat.
  22. (1983). Ohnishi S: Hemolytic activity of influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoproteins activated in mildly acidic environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
  23. OIE/FAO: Recommendations of the World Health Organization for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization.
  24. (2006). Otsuki K: Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan and antiinfluenza virus activity of povidoneiodine products. Dermatology
  25. (2003). RG: Role of Quail in the interspecies transmission of H9 influenza A viruses: molecular changes on HA that correspond to adaptation from ducks to chickens.
  26. (1997). Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong,
  27. (1985). Stability of infectious influenza A viruses at low pH and at elevated temperature. Vaccine
  28. (2003). Survival of avian influenza virus H7N2 in SPF chickens and their environments. Avian Dis
  29. (2006). Temperature sensitive influenza A virus genome replication results from low thermal stability of polymerase-cRNA complexes.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.