Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Impact of Smoking Reduction on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Trends During 1981–2000 in England and Wales

By B Unal, JA Critchley and S Capewell
Topics: Research
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. (1995). ACE inhibitor use in patients with myocardial infarction: Summary of evidence from clinical trials. Circulation
    2. al,1995[42]RR=3.5 6 (2.96-4.29) Female RRs x 1.5 higher than male,
    3. (1994). Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration [see comments] [published erratum appears
    4. (1999). Aspirin Ryan(2001)[8] 61% Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (2002)[4] 15% Beta blocker EUROASPIRE II(2001)[9;9] 37% Freemantle
    5. (1999). beta Blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ
    6. (1990). Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet
    7. (1990). Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet
    8. (2000). British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) audit returns of interventional procedures
    9. (1981). British Regional Heart Study: cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men in 24 towns. BMJ
    10. (1994). By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ
    11. (2000). Capewell S Appendix 1. Medical and surgical treatments included in the model: data sources for treatment uptake levels and relative risk reductions
    12. (1999). Cardiovascular Disease '98. London: Stationery Office,
    13. (1999). cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation
    14. (1997). Changes in population cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease deaths in seven countries. Eur Heart J
    15. (1994). Changes in risk factors explain changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland. BMJ
    16. (1996). Clinical effects of anticoagulant therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of randomised trials.
    17. (2002). Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ
    18. (1975). Contribution of modern cardiovascular treatment and risk factor changes to the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Scotland between
    19. (1992). Cumulative metaanalysis of therapeutic trials for myocardial infarction.
    20. (1991). Decline in ischaemic heart disease in Iceland and change in risk factor levels. BMJ
    21. (1994). Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on survival: overview of 10-year results from randomised trials by the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Trialists Collaboration. Lancet
    22. (2000). Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary-event rates across the WHO MONICA Project. Lancet
    23. (1997). Evidence-based medicine and treatment choices. Lancet
    24. (2000). Explaining the decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Auckland, New Zealand between 1982 and 1993. Circulation
    25. (1998). Fatality outside hospital from acute coronary events in three British health districts, 1994-5. United Kingdom Heart Attack Study Collaborative Group. BMJ
    26. (2001). Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of european prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition (EPIC-
    27. (2001). Health Statistics Quarterly
    28. (2002). Heart Foundation Statistics Database. Coronary Heart Disease Statistics.
    29. (2000). Hence these estimates are not independent of each other. The major outcome in the MONICA
    30. Hidden bias in observational study.
    31. (1998). Improved hypertension management and control: results from the health survey for England
    32. (1998). Individual social class, area-based deprivation, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and mortality: the Renfrew and
    33. (2002). Interventional versus conservative treatment for patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the British Heart Foundation RITA 3 randomised trial. Randomized Intervention Trial of unstable Angina. Lancet
    34. (2001). Lifestyle and risk factor management and use of drug therapies in coronary patients from 15 countries; principal results from EUROASPIRE II Euro Heart Survey Programme. Eur Heart J
    35. (2000). Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left- ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACE-Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet
    36. (2001). Long-term clinical outcome and predictors of major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous interventions on saphenous vein grafts.
    37. (2002). Management of heart failure in primary care (the IMPROVEMENT of Heart Failure Programme): an international survey. Lancet
    38. (1996). Mortality during 25 years of follow-up of a cohort with diabetes.
    39. (2001). ONS-Office for National Statistics Social Survey Division. Living in Britain:Results from the 2000/01 General Household Survey. London: The Stationery Office,
    40. (1982). ONS-Office for National Statistics-Social Survey Division. General Household Survey 1980. London: Stationery Office,
    41. (1999). ONS-Office for National Statistics. Mortality Statistics cause. Review of the Registrar General on deaths by cause, sex and age, in England and Wales,
    42. (1971). ONS-Office for National Statistics. Population:Age and sex,
    43. (1999). Pathology of the coronary arteries in smokers and non-smokers. J Cardiovasc Risk
    44. (2001). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: is "no pain, no gain" passe? JAMA
    45. (1991). Physical activity and ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged British men. Br Heart J
    46. (2002). Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet
    47. (1994). Prevalence and management of heart failure in general practice in England and Wales,
    48. (1994). Prevalence of ischaemic heart disease and its management with statins and aspirin in general practice in England and Wales,
    49. (1996). Recent trends in acute coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, medical care, and risk factors. The Minnesota Heart Survey Investigators.
    50. (1989). Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General.
    51. Relation between coronary risk and coronary mortality in women of the Renfrew and Paisley survey: comparison with men. Lancet 1992; 339:702-6. 9. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services.
    52. (1996). Relations of changes in coronary disease rates and changes in risk factor levels: methodological issues and a practical example.
    53. (1998). Smoking Kills: A White Paper on Tobacco.
    54. Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland. Trends in Surgery for Ischaemic Heart Disease.
    55. (1992). Survey of 3765 cardiopulmonary resuscitations in British hospitals (the BRESUS Study): methods and overall results. BMJ
    56. (1994). Systematic underestimation of association between serum cholesterol concentration and ischaemic heart disease in observational studies: data from the BUPA study.
    57. (1999). The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.
    58. (1990). The Surgeon General's
    59. (2001). Trends in case-fatality in 117 718 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction in Scotland.
    60. (2000). Use of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ
    61. (2000). Use of statins in general practices, 1996-8: cross sectional study. BMJ
    62. (1998). Vascular damage from smoking: disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Vasc Med
    63. (1995). weight change, and coronary heart disease in women. Risk within the “normal” weight range. JAMA

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.