Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations induced by organotin(IV) carboxylates in MCF-7 cells at sub-cytotoxic/-genotoxic concentrations

By Muhammad S Ahmad, Bushra Mirza, Mukhtiar Hussain, Muhammad Hanif, Saqib Ali, Michael J Walsh and Francis L Martin


The environmental impact of metal complexes such as organotin(IV) compounds is of increasing concern. Genotoxic effects of organotin(IV) compounds (0.01 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml) were measured using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay to measure DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay to determine micronucleus formation. Biochemical-cell signatures were also ascertained using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. In the comet assay, organotin(IV) carboxylates induced significantly-elevated levels of DNA SSBs. Elevated micronucleus-forming activities were also observed. Following interrogation using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, infrared spectra in the biomolecular range (900 cm-1 – 1800 cm-1) derived from organotin-treated MCF-7 cells exhibited clear alterations in their biochemical-cell fingerprint compared to control-cell populations following exposures as low as 0.0001 μg/ml. Mono-, di- or tri-organotin(IV) carboxylates (0.1 μg/ml, 1.0 μg/ml or 10.0 μg/ml) were markedly cytotoxic as determined by the clonogenic assay following treatment of MCF-7 cells with ≥ 1.0 μg/ml. Our results demonstrate that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can be applied to detect molecular alterations induced by organotin(IV) compounds at sub-cytotoxic and sub-genotoxic concentrations. This biophysical approach points to a novel means of assessing risk associated with environmental contaminants

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (1979). Anal Chem
  2. (2004). Annu Rep Prog Chem Sect A
  3. (2005). Appl Organomet Chem
  4. (1999). Ballarin L: Appl Organomet Chem
  5. (2002). Bioorg Med Chem Lett
  6. (1999). DH: Biochem Biophys Res Commun
  7. (1997). DH: Carcinogenesis
  8. (2000). DH: Mutat Res
  9. (2000). E: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
  10. (2004). FL: Carcinogenesis
  11. (2004). FL: Environ Sci Technol
  12. (2006). FL: Mutagenesis
  13. (2006). Heteroatom Chem
  14. (2002). Huang JK: Life Sci
  15. (2005). Inorg Biochem
  16. (1999). Mutat Res
  17. (2003). Nok AJ: Jpn Parasitolog Res
  18. (1998). Omachi AA: Metal-Based Drugs
  19. (2006). Organomet Chem
  20. (2004). Polymeric Platinum-containing Drugs in the Treatment of Cancer.
  21. (1992). Salzer A: Organometallics, a concise introduction. 2nd edition.
  22. (2006). Sci Total Environ
  23. (2005). Supuran CT:
  24. (2006). Supuran CT: J Enzyme Inhibit Med Chem
  25. (1993). TC: Biochem Biophys Res Commun
  26. (1994). Tiekink ERT: Trends Organomet Chem
  27. (1997). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
  28. (2008). TS: Appl Organomet Chem
  29. (1999). Venitt S: Mutat Res
  30. (2000). WR: Biopolymers

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.