Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Model-Based Analysis of Flow-Mediated Dilation and Intima-Media Thickness

By G. Bartoli, G. Menegaz, M. Lisi, G. Di Stolfo, S. Dragoni and T. Gori


We present an end-to-end system for the automatic measurement of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) for the assessment of the arterial function. The video sequences are acquired from a B-mode echographic scanner. A spline model (deformable template) is fitted to the data to detect the artery boundaries and track them all along the video sequence. The a priori knowledge about the image features and its content is exploited. Preprocessing is performed to improve both the visual quality of video frames for visual inspection and the performance of the segmentation algorithm without affecting the accuracy of the measurements. The system allows real-time processing as well as a high level of interactivity with the user. This is obtained by a graphical user interface (GUI) enabling the cardiologist to supervise the whole process and to eventually reset the contour extraction at any point in time. The system was validated and the accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability of the measurements were assessed with extensive in vivo experiments. Jointly with the user friendliness, low cost, and robustness, this makes the system suitable for both research and daily clinical use

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (2002). A rapid and reproducible on line automated technique to determine endothelial function,”
  2. (2007). A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images,”
  3. (2002). alink´ a s ,E
  4. (2000). Automated ultrasonic measurement of human arteries for the determination of endothelial function,”
  5. (2001). Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images,”
  6. (2003). B o n e t t i ,L .O .L e r m a n ,a n dA .L e r m a n ,“ E n d o t h e l i a l dysfunction: a marker of atherosclerotic risk,”
  7. (1993). B-spline signal processing.
  8. (1992). C e l e r m a j e r ,K .E .S o r e n s e n ,V .M .G o o c h ,e ta l . ,“ N o n -invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adultsatriskofatherosclerosis,”TheLancet,vol.340,no.8828,
  9. (2006). Correlation analysis between different parameters of conduit artery and microvascular vasodilation,”
  10. (1997). D.S.Celermajer,“Endothelialdysfunction:doesitmatter?Isit reversible?”
  11. (2003). Endothelial function testing as a biomarker of vascular disease,”
  12. (2002). Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelialdependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the international brachial artery reactivity task force,”
  13. (2001). Improved analysis of brachial artery ultrasound using a novel edgedetection software system,”
  14. (2007). New monitoring software for larger clinical application of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation measurements,”
  15. (2007). Nitroglycerin protects the endothelium from ischemia and reperfusion injury: human mechanistic insight,”
  16. (1997). Non-invasive measurement of endothelial function: effect on brachial artery dilatation of graded endothelial dependent and independent stimuli,” Heart,v o l .7 8 ,n o .1 ,p p .
  17. (1997). Noninvasive assessment of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery,”
  18. (2007). Peak vs. total reactive hyperemia:whichdeterminesthemagnitudeofflow-mediated dilation?”
  19. (1997). Reproducibility of in vivo carotid intima-media thickness measurements: a review,” Stroke,v o l .2 8 ,n o .3 ,p p .
  20. (2005). Sildenafil prevents endothelial dysfunction inducedbyischemiaandreperfusionviaopeningofadenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. A human in vivo study,”
  21. (1999). Splines: a perfect fit for signal and image processing,”IEEESignalProcessingMagazine,vol.16,no.6,pp.22–38,
  22. (1986). Statistical methods for assessingagreementbetweentwomethodsofclinicalmeasurement,”
  23. (2005). T.A.Alam,A.M.Seifalian,andD.Baker,“Areviewofmethods currently used for assessment of in vivo endothelial function,”
  24. (1996). The application of echo-tracking methods to endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity and arterial compliance measurements,”
  25. (1989). u s s e ,U .P o h l ,a n dA .L¨ uckhoff, “Mechanisms controlling the production of endothelial autacoids,”
  26. (2000). Ultrasound measurement of brachial flow-mediated vasodilator response,”

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.