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DNA Damage Triggers p21WAF1-dependent Emi1 Down-Regulation That Maintains G2 Arrest

By Jinho Lee, Jin Ah Kim, Valerie Barbier, Arun Fotedar and Rati Fotedar

Abstract

Several regulatory proteins control cell cycle progression. These include Emi1, an anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibitor whose destruction controls progression through mitosis to G1, and p21WAF1, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor activated by DNA damage. We have analyzed the role of p21WAF1 in G2-M phase checkpoint control and in prevention of polyploidy after DNA damage. After DNA damage, p21+/+ cells stably arrest in G2, whereas p21−/− cells ultimately progress into mitosis. We report that p21 down-regulates Emi1 in cells arrested in G2 by DNA damage. This down-regulation contributes to APC activation and results in the degradation of key mitotic proteins including cyclins A2 and B1 in p21+/+ cells. Inactivation of APC in irradiated p21+/+ cells can overcome the G2 arrest. siRNA-mediated Emi1 down-regulation prevents irradiated p21−/− cells from entering mitosis, whereas concomitant down-regulation of APC activity counteracts this effect. Our results demonstrate that Emi1 down-regulation and APC activation leads to stable p21-dependent G2 arrest after DNA damage. This is the first demonstration that Emi1 regulation plays a role in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. Further, our work identifies a new p21-dependent mechanism to maintain G2 arrest after DNA damage

Topics: Articles
Publisher: The American Society for Cell Biology
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2663934
Provided by: PubMed Central
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