Background: Titanium implants that have been grit-blasted and acid-etched to produce a rough microtopography support more bone integration than do smooth-surfaced implants. In vitro studies have suggested that this is due to a stimulatory effect on osteoblasts. It is not known if grit-blasted and acid-etched Ti6Al4V implants also stimulate osteoblasts and increase bone formation clinically. In this study, we examined the effects of micrometer-scale-structured Ti6Al4V surfaces on cell responses in vitro and on tissue responses in vivo
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