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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation Restores Islet Function in Diabetic Mice through Reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Maintenance of Euchromatin Structure▿

By Carmella Evans-Molina, Reiesha D. Robbins, Tatsuyoshi Kono, Sarah A. Tersey, George L. Vestermark, Craig S. Nunemaker, James C. Garmey, Tye G. Deering, Susanna R. Keller, Bernhard Maier and Raghavendra G. Mirmira

Abstract

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) is an important target in diabetes therapy, but its direct role, if any, in the restoration of islet function has remained controversial. To identify potential molecular mechanisms of PPAR-γ in the islet, we treated diabetic or glucose-intolerant mice with the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone or with a control. Treated mice exhibited significantly improved glycemic control, corresponding to increased serum insulin and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release and Ca2+ responses from isolated islets in vitro. This improved islet function was at least partially attributed to significant upregulation of the islet genes Irs1, SERCA, Ins1/2, and Glut2 in treated animals. The restoration of the Ins1/2 and Glut2 genes corresponded to a two- to threefold increase in the euchromatin marker histone H3 dimethyl-Lys4 at their respective promoters and was coincident with increased nuclear occupancy of the islet methyltransferase Set7/9. Analysis of diabetic islets in vitro suggested that these effects resulting from the presence of the PPAR-γ agonist may be secondary to improvements in endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consistent with this possibility, incubation of thapsigargin-treated INS-1 β cells with the PPAR-γ agonist resulted in the reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and restoration of Pdx1 protein levels and Set7/9 nuclear occupancy. We conclude that PPAR-γ agonists exert a direct effect in diabetic islets to reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress and enhance Pdx1 levels, leading to favorable alterations of the islet gene chromatin architecture

Topics: Articles
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2663298
Provided by: PubMed Central
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