The topic of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors has been developed in the field of hepatology allowing envisaging therapeutic strategies for the most frequent chronic liver diseases such as chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). PPARs contribute to wide physiological processes within the liver such as lipid/glucid metabolisms, inflammatory response, cell differentiation, and cell cycle. In vitro experiments and animal studies showed that PPARα discloses anti-inflammatory property, and PPARγ discloses anti-inflammatory, antifibrogenic, and antiproliferative properties in the liver. Experimental and human studies showed impaired PPARs expression and function during HCV infection. The available nonhepatotoxic agonists of PPARs may constitute a progress in the therapeutic management of patients chronically infected with HCV
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