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ADP Competes with FAD Binding in Putrescine Oxidase*

By Erik W. van Hellemond, Hortense Mazon, Albert J. Heck, Robert H. H. van den Heuvel, Dominic P. H. M. Heuts, Dick B. Janssen and Marco W. Fraaije


Putrescine oxidase from Rhodococcus erythropolis NCIMB 11540 (PuORh) is a soluble homodimeric flavoprotein of 100 kDa, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of putrescine and some other aliphatic amines. The initial characterization of PuORh uncovered an intriguing feature: the enzyme appeared to contain only one noncovalently bound FAD cofactor per dimer. Here we show that this low FAD/protein ratio is the result of tight binding of ADP, thereby competing with FAD binding. MS analysis revealed that the enzyme is isolated as a mixture of dimers containing two molecules of FAD, two molecules ADP, or one FAD and one ADP molecule. In addition, based on a structural model of PuORh that was built using the crystal structure of human monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), we constructed an active mutant enzyme, PuORh A394C, that contains covalently bound FAD. These findings show that the covalent FAD-protein linkage can be formed autocatalytically and hint to a new-found rationale for covalent flavinylation: covalent flavinylation may have evolved to prevent binding of ADP or related cellular compounds, which would prohibit formation of flavinylated and functional enzyme

Topics: Enzyme Catalysis and Regulation
Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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