Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Extracting Kinematic Parameters for Monkey Bipedal Walking from Cortical Neuronal Ensemble Activity

By Nathan A. Fitzsimmons, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Ian D. Peikon and Miguel A. L. Nicolelis


The ability to walk may be critically impacted as the result of neurological injury or disease. While recent advances in brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated the feasibility of upper-limb neuroprostheses, BMIs have not been evaluated as a means to restore walking. Here, we demonstrate that chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons can be used to predict the kinematics of bipedal walking in rhesus macaques – both offline and in real time. Linear decoders extracted 3D coordinates of leg joints and leg muscle electromyograms from the activity of hundreds of cortical neurons. As more complex patterns of walking were produced by varying the gait speed and direction, larger neuronal populations were needed to accurately extract walking patterns. Extraction was further improved using a switching decoder which designated a submodel for each walking paradigm. We propose that BMIs may one day allow severely paralyzed patients to walk again

Topics: Neuroscience
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (2009). 3:3. doi: 10.3389/neuro.07.003.2009 Copyright ©
  2. (2009). 335–360.Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
  3. (2009). 859–882, vii.Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
  4. (2008). A biologically inspired biped locomotion strategy for humanoid robots: modulation of sinusoidal patterns by a coupled oscillator model.
  5. (2006). A comparison of optimal MIMO linear and nonlinear models for brain-machine interfaces.
  6. (2003). Acquisition of operanttrained bipedal locomotion in juvenile Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): a longitudinal study.
  7. (2001). Actions from thoughts.
  8. (2003). Activity of different classes of neurons of the motor cortex during locomotion.
  9. (2002). Adaptive Filter Theory Upper Saddle River,
  10. (1986). Amplitude modulation of the soleus H-refl ex in the human during walking and standing.
  11. (2006). Application of EMG signals for controlling exoskeleton robots.
  12. (1994). Basic kinematics of walking. Step length and step frequency. A review.
  13. (1999). Behavioral modulation of tactile responses in the rat somatosensory system.
  14. (2007). Benefi ts of FES gait in a spinal cord injured population.
  15. (2006). Biological pattern generation: the cellular and computational logic of networks in motion.
  16. (2007). Biologically inspired adaptive walking of a quadruped robot.
  17. (2003). Biomechanical and physiological aspects of legged locomotion in humans.
  18. (2002). Biomechanics and muscle coordination of human walking. Part I: introduction to concepts, power transfer, dynamics and simulations.
  19. (2004). Bipedal animals, and their differences from humans.
  20. (2001). Bipedal locomotion by the normally quadrupedal Japanese monkey, M. Fuscata: strategies for obstacle clearance and recovery from stumbling.
  21. (2007). Bipedal locomotion with a humanoid robot controlled by cortical ensemble activity.
  22. (2007). Bipedal locomotion: toward unifi ed concepts in robotics and neuroscience.
  23. (2004). Brain activation patterns during imagined stance and locomotion in functional magnetic resonance imaging.
  24. (2005). Brain motor system function after chronic, complete spinal cord injury.
  25. (2008). Brain motor system function in a patient with complete spinal cord injury following extensive brain-computer interface training.
  26. (2006). Brain-controlled interfaces: movement restoration with neural prosthetics.
  27. (2006). Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future.
  28. (2002). Cellular bases of a vertebrate locomotor system-steering, intersegmental and segmental co-ordination and sensory control. Brain Res. Brain Res.
  29. (2008). Cerebral correlates of motor imagery of normal and precision gait.
  30. (2007). Cerebral palsy.
  31. (2003). Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys.
  32. (2007). Cognitive demands and cortical control of human balance-recovery reactions.
  33. (2002). Comparative neurobiology of postural control.
  34. (2006). Continuous shared control stabilizes reach and grasping with brain-machine interfaces.
  35. (1999). Correlations between neurograms and locomotor drive potentials in motoneurons during fi ctive locomotion: implications for the organization of locomotor commands.
  36. (2004). Cortical and brainstem control of locomotion.
  37. (2008). Cortical control of a prosthetic arm for self-feeding.
  38. (2005). Cortical ensemble adaptation to represent velocity of an artifi cial actuator controlled by a brain-machine interface.
  39. (2008). Cortical mechanisms involved in visuomotor coordination during precision walking.
  40. (1999). Cortical potentials during imagined movements in individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries.
  41. (1998). Cortically controlled gait adjustments in the cat.
  42. De Motu Animalium.
  43. (2007). Decoding bipedal locomotion patterns from cortical ensemble activity in rhesus monkeys.
  44. (2004). Decoding continuous and discrete motor behaviors using motor and premotor cortical ensembles.
  45. (2008). Decoding of temporal intervals from cortical ensemble activity.
  46. (2007). Design and evaluation of the LOPES exoskeleton robot for interactive gait rehabilitation.
  47. (2002). Direct cortical control of 3D neuroprosthetic devices.
  48. (2004). Distinct temporal activity patterns in the rat M1 and red nucleus during skilled versus unskilled limb movement.
  49. (2004). Distributed plasticity of locomotor pattern generators in spinal cord injured patients.
  50. (2003). Divide-andconquer approach for brain machine interfaces: nonlinear mixture of competitive linear models.
  51. (2004). Do highly trained monkeys walk like humans? A kinematic study of bipedal locomotion in bipedally trained Japanese macaques.
  52. (1992). Dynamics of Human Gait. Human Kinetics.
  53. (1987). Electromyographic gait assessment, part 1, adult EMG profi les and walking speed.
  54. (1987). EMG profi les during normal human walking: stride-to-stride and inter-subject variability.
  55. (2004). Ensemble recordings of human subcortical neurons as a source of motor control signals for a brain-machine interface.
  56. (2007). Event-related beta EEGchanges during passive and attempted foot movements in paraplegic patients.
  57. (2008). Excitatory components of the mammalian locomotor CPG.
  58. (2008). Forebrain control of locomotor behaviors.
  59. (2005). Frontal and parietal cortical ensembles predict single-trial muscle activity during reaching movements in primates.
  60. (1992). Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function. Thorofare,
  61. (2008). Gait disorders and balance disturbances in Parkinson’s disease: clinical update and pathophysiology.
  62. (2005). Gait termination: a review of experimental methods and the effects of ageing and gait pathologies.
  63. (1996). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
  64. (2000). How animals move: an integrative view.
  65. (1986). How is the normal locomotor program modifi ed to produce backward walking?
  66. (2004). How the mesencephalic locomotor region recruits hindbrain neurons.
  67. (2003). How we walk: central control of muscle activity during human walking.
  68. (2002). Inputoutput mapping performance of linear and nonlinear models for estimating hand trajectories from cortical neuronal fi ring patterns. In:
  69. (2002). Instant neural control of a movement signal.
  70. (2000). Instigation and control of treadmill locomotion in high decerebrate cats by stimulation of the hook bundle of Russell in the cerebellum.
  71. (2005). Kinematic and EMG determinants in quadrupedal locomotion of a non-human primate (Rhesus).
  72. (2004). Learning from demonstration and adaptation of biped locomotion.
  73. (2003). Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.
  74. (2004). Locomotor role of the corticoreticular-reticulospinal-spinal interneuronal system.
  75. (2006). Locomotor training in people with Parkinson disease.
  76. (2004). Mechanical aspects of legged locomotion control.
  77. (2007). Modeling a vertebrate motor system: pattern generation, steering and control of body orientation.
  78. (2004). Modeling and decoding motor cortical activity using a switching Kalman filter.
  79. (2007). Modeling biological motor control for human locomotion with functional electrical stimulation.
  80. (2006). Modulation of locomotor activity in complete spinal cord injury.
  81. (1995). Modulation of locomotor-like EMG activity in subjects with complete and incomplete spinal cord injury.
  82. (1993). Motor cortical activity during voluntary gait modifi cations in the cat. I. Cells related to the forelimbs.
  83. (1994). Motor cortical activity during voluntary gait modifi cations in the cat. II. Cells related to the hindlimbs.
  84. (2007). Motor imagery of gait: a quantitative approach.
  85. (1999). Multicenter evaluation of electrical stimulation systems for walking.
  86. (1999). Muscle and movement representations in the primary motor cortex.
  87. (2008). Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates – an overview.
  88. (2008). Neural mechanisms involved in mental imagery and observation of gait.
  89. (2001). Neural plasticity after human spinal cord injury: application of locomotor training to the rehabilitation of walking.
  90. (2006). Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia.
  91. (1981). Neuronal responses in sensorimotor cortex to ramp displacements and maintained positions imposed on hindlimb of the unanesthetized monkey.
  92. (2006). Neuroplasticity after spinal cord injury and training: an emerging paradigm shift in rehabilitation and walking recovery.
  93. (1989). Normal gait characteristics under temporal and distance constraints.
  94. (2008). Organization of mammalian locomotor rhythm and pattern generation.
  95. (2009). paper pending published: 19
  96. (2005). Performance of locomotion and foot grasping following a unilateral thoracic corticospinal tract lesion in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
  97. (2003). Positional behavior of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).
  98. (2008). Prediction of walking recovery after spinal cord injury.
  99. (2008). Preservation of motor programs in paraplegics as demonstrated by attempted and imagined foot movements.
  100. (2006). Preserved aspects of cortical foot control in paraplegia.
  101. (2002). Quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury – basic issues, assessment, and recommendations.
  102. (2005). Quantification of motor cortex activity and full-body biomechanics during unconstrained locomotion.
  103. (2004). Quantification of walking mobility in neurological disorders.
  104. (2004). Reactive and anticipatory control of posture and bipedal locomotion in a nonhuman primate.
  105. (2000). Realtime prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates.
  106. (2007). Realtime three-dimensional video tracking system for kinematic analysis of animal behavior.
  107. (2004). Recovery from spinal cord injury – underlying mechanisms and effi cacy of rehabilitation.
  108. (1985). Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.
  109. (2008). Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview.
  110. (1996). Role of the cerebellum and motor cortex in the regulation of visually controlled locomotion.
  111. (1982). Somatic sensory transmission to the cortex during movement: gating of single cell responses to touch.
  112. (2001). Somatotopic arrangement and corticocortical inputs of the hindlimb region of the primary motor cortex in the macaque monkey.
  113. (2008). Spatiotemporal organization of alpha-motoneuron activity in the human spinal cord during different gaits and gait transitions.
  114. (2008). Spinal and supraspinal postural networks.
  115. (2007). Spinal control of locomotion – from cat to man.
  116. (2007). Spinal cord injury: time to move?
  117. (2001). Spinal cord lesion: effects of and perspectives for treatment.
  118. (2006). Stability, limb coordination and substrate type: the ecorelevance of gait sequence pattern in primates.
  119. (2005). Stable ensemble performance with single-neuron variability during reaching movements in primates.
  120. (2000). Studies of human locomotion: past, present and future.
  121. (1981). Submodality distribution in sensorimotor cortex of the unanesthetized monkey.
  122. (1981). Supplementary and precentral motor cortex: contrast in responsiveness to peripheral input in the hindlimb area of the unanesthetized monkey.
  123. (1994). The biomechanics of walking and running.
  124. (2004). The central pattern generator for forelimb locomotion in the cat.
  125. (2008). The role of executive function and attention in gait.
  126. (1993). The role of the motor cortex in the control of accuracy of locomotor movements in the cat.
  127. (2002). The special nature of human walking and its neural control.
  128. (2003). Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey.
  129. (2003). Upper and lower extremity robotic devices for rehabilitation and for studying motor control.
  130. (2004). Using multi-neuron population recordings for neural prosthetics.
  131. (1994). Vibrationentrained and premovement activity in monkey primary somatosensory cortex.
  132. (1989). Visuomotor coordination in reaching and locomotion.
  133. (2007). Volitional control of neural activity: implications for brain-computer interfaces.
  134. (2006). Walking from thought. Brain Res.
  135. (1964). Walking patterns of normal men.
  136. (1970). Walking patterns of normal women.
  137. (2005). What disconnection tells about motor imagery: evidence from paraplegic patients.
  138. (2000). What do reflex and voluntary mean? Modern views on an ancient debate.
  139. (2004). What you see may not be what you get: a brief, nontechnical introduction to overfitting in regression-type models.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.