Increasingly complex networks of small RNAs act through RNA interference pathway to regulate gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that both development and proper function of central nervous system require intricate spatiotemporal expression of a wide repertoire of small regulatory RNAs. Misregulation of these small regulatory RNAs could contribute to the abnormalities in brain development that are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we will review recent progress made toward understanding roles of small regulatory RNAs in neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss the potential involvement of newly discovered classes of small RNAs in these disorders
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