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Effect of diet, age and sex on the renal response to immune injury in the rat

By Aida Yared, Hirofumi Miyazawa, Mabel L. Purkerson, Saulo Klahr, David J. Salant and Iekuni Ichikawa

Abstract

Effect of diet, age and sex on the glomerular response to immune injury in the rat. We investigated the effect of three factors, namely dietary protein intake, age and sex, on the susceptibility of the renal glomerulus to the binding of antiglomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM) in the early (heterologous) phase of anti-GBM nephritis, and the consequent reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by inulin clearance (CIn). The effect of diet was examined in ≈ 8 week-old female Munich-Wistar rats fed a 40% high (HP) or a 6% low (LP) protein diet, and that of sex and age in male and female rats, 6 week or 10 month old. Following an intravenous dose (3 to 20 µg/g body wt) of radiolabeled nephritogenic anti-GBM, assessment of glomerular function was followed by quantitation of anti-GBM binding (values corrected for GBM surface area) in isolated glomeruli. At a given plasma level of antibody, the degree of binding of anti-GBM was slightly but significantly higher in HP than LP-fed rats; the decrease in GFR was significantly more pronounced in HP than LP-fed animals. The amount of anti-GBM binding was significantly greater in adult than young animals; however, the consequent decrease in GFR was more pronounced in the young than adult animals. Sex dependency was not discernible in anti-GBM binding or reduction in GFR. In all of the above experimental groups, the degree of anti-GBM binding was closely correlated with the plasma level of anti-GBM, but not with effective renal plasma flow rate, measured by PAH clearance. Separate groups of rats were subjected to experimental manipulation of single nephron GFR, glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and glomerular plasma flow rate, by partial aortic constriction and saralasin administration. This set of experiments, using a tracer amount of non-nephritogenic anti-GBM, revealed that glomerular anti-GBM binding is independent of any of the above parameters. The studies indicate that dietary protein intake and age, but not sex, are among the factors determining the susceptibility of the glomerulus to acute immune injury. Since the binding of anti-GBM is determined by the affinity property of the glomerulus per se, and not by the prevailing hemodynamic pattern, the observed dependence of susceptibility to functional impairment on age and protein intake appears to also reflect a property of the glomerulus, which is influenced by age and the degree of dietary protein intake

Publisher: International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Year: 1988
DOI identifier: 10.1038/ki.1988.34
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